Sunday, October 24, 2010

A notes of NEW butterflies species recorded in Singapore & who found them

This notes was prepared by comparing the Latest Singapore Butterflies Observation List against the Bible of butterflies reference - "The Butterflies of the Malay Peninsula 4th Edition".
Reference Website: NSS Butterflies Sighting records

Family : Papilionidae
Graphium doson evemonides (Common Jay) - (2004) Richard Ong

Family : Pieridae
Pieris canidia canidia (Cabbage White) - (2001) Simon Chan
Hebomoia glaucippe aturia (Great Orange Tip) - (2004) Richard Ong

Family : Nymphalidae
Acraea violae (Tawny Coster) - (2006) Rey Aguila
Cethosia cyane (Leopard Lacewing) - (2005) ?
Vanessa indica indica (Indian Red Admiral) - (2008) James Chia
Vanessa cardui (Painted Lady) - (2007) Horace Tan
Hypolimnas bolina jacintha (Jacintha Eggfly) - (2001) Simon Chan and Gan CW
Doleschallia bisaltide ?bisaltide (Autumn Leaf) - (1999) Andrea, Steven Neo
Athyma pravara helma (Lance Sergeant) - ?
Lebadea martha malayana (Knight) - (2005) Khew SK
Lexias dirtea merguia - ?

Family : Lycaenidae
Megisba malaya sikkima  (The Malayan) - ?
Zizeeria maha serica (Pale Grass Blue) - (2001) Steven Neo
Nacaduba biocellata (Two Spotted Line Blue) - (2004) Federick Ho
Catopyrops ancyra (Ancyra Blue) - (2005) Soon Chye
Petrelaea dana dana (Dingy Line Blue) - ?
Sinthusa nasaka amba (Narrow Spark) - ?
Pratapa deva relata (White Royal) - (2008) Richard Ong
Deudorix staudingeri (The Large Cornelian) - (2012) Gan CW

Family : Hesperiidae
Bibasis sena uniformis (Orange-Tail Awl) - (2002) Gan CW
Pseudocoladenia dan dhyana (Fulvous Pied Flat) - (2002) Steven Neo, Simon Chan
Suastus gremius gremius (Palm Bob) - ?
Suastus everyx everyx - ?
Zela zenon - ?
Taractrocera archias quinta - ?
Telicota linna (Linna Palm Dart) - (2010) Soon Chye
Cephrenes trichopepla (Yellow Palm Dart) - (1999) Kelvyn Dunn
Pelopidas conjunctus conjunctus (Conjoined Swift) - (2005) Soon Chye
Pelopidas assamensis (Great Swift) - (2002) Khew SK, Steven Neo, Gan CW
Pelopidas agna agna (Little Branded Swift) - (2010) Soon Chye
Borbo cinnara cinnara (Formosan Swift) - (2010) Soon Chye
Hyarotis microsticta (White Club Flitter) - 2015 (Yik Shih), 2007 (Soon Chye)
Potanthus ganda (The Ganda Dart) - (2015) Soon Chye

Note:
1. NSS = Nature Society (Singapore), most of the new records came from this group in early 2000.
2. Records marked as ? was recorded by some earlier authors.

Last updated on 9 Oct 2015

Saturday, October 23, 2010

Tuesday, October 5, 2010

Early stage of Badamia exclamationis (Brown Awl)

The adult of Brown Awl is not often seen in Singapore, but it's definitely not rare as described by the early author, the species & their larva has been found in several location such as CCA, SBG, MOG & SBWR.

The adult visits flowers, and sometimes spotted stop on damp rock but usually found hide under leaf.






Monday, September 27, 2010

Sunday, September 26, 2010

Why we need a new Singapore Butterflies Observation Checklist?

There're a couple of Singapore Butterflies Checklists available on internet today, mostly maintained by old time butterflies collectors, either with old sighting records, or are not updated.

The problem of such checklists is that, it's maintained with "secrecy", the additional of new or removal of old butterfly species was made unclear, not open & to certain extend, individual likeness.

Butterfly species such as Delias pasithoe parthenope (Red-Base Jezebel), is still kept in most of the checklist, while in actual fact, the butterflies had not been seen for at least the past donkey years. Photos used in such checklists were taken in the neighboring country, and posted in the local checklist.

Same for Iraota distanti distanti, also not sighted for long, and the photo illustrated in local website, is the individual captured by the butterflies collector, pinched on the body to make it immobile, and appear standing in weird & weak position.

Species such as Hebomoia glaucippe aturia (Great Orange Tip), was sighted only once in the recent year but also included in the checklist. A simple notes of such sighting will help to public to understand it's a single sighting (possibly migratory species) and not a local native species.

Saturday, September 25, 2010

Latest Singapore Butterflies Observation Checklist

This checklist is not based on any systematic surveys but observation records contributed by Local Butterflies Groups (Nature Society Singapore - Butterflies Interest Group, ButterflyPals, ButterflyCircle) and individual butterflies observers.
Based on the book 'The Butterflies of the Malay Peninsula' by A.S. Corbet and H. M. Pendlebury, Fourth Edition (BMP), per update to BMP published in MNJ 2006, 59 (1), 1-49

Last updated on Sep 2010

[N] = new species not recorded in C&P4


Family : Papilionidae
1 Troides helena cerberus (Common Birdwing)
2 Pachliopta aristolochiae asteris (Common Rose)
3 Chilasa clytia clytia (Common Mime)
4 Papilio demoleus malayanus (Lime Butterfly)
5 Papilio demolion demolion (Banded Swallowtail)
6 Papilio iswara iswara (Great Helen)
7 Papilio polytes romulus (Common Mormon)
8 Papilio memnon agenor (Great Mormon)
9 Papilio prexaspes prexaspes (Blue Helen)
10 Graphium sarpedon luctatius (Common Bluebottle)
11 Graphium doson evemonides (Common Jay) [N]
12 Graphium evemon eventus (Blue Jay)
13 Graphium agamemnon agamemnon (Tailed Jay)

Family : Pieridae
14 Pathysa antiphates itamputi (Five Bar Swordtail)
15 Delias hyparete metarete (Painted Jezebel)
16 Hebomoia glaucippe aturia (Great Orange Tip) [N] ***
17 Leptosia nina malayana (Psyche)
18 Pieris canidia canidia (Cabbage White)
19 Appias lyncida vasava (Chocolate Albatross) ***
20 Appias libythea olferna (Striped Albatross)
21 Catopsilia pyranthe pyranthe (Mottled Emigrant)
22 Catopsilia pomona pomona (Lemon Emigrant)
23 Catopsilia scylla cornelia (Orange Emigrant)
24 Eurema brigitta senna (No Brand Grass Yellow)
25 Eurema hecabe contubernalis (Common Grass Yellow)
26 Eurema simulatrix tecmessa
27 Eurema blanda snelleni (Three Spot Grass Yellow)
28 Eurema andersonii andersonii
29 Eurema sari sodalis (Chocolate Grass Yellow)
30 Gandaca harina distanti (Tree Yellow)

Family : Nymphalidae
31 Danaus chrysippus chrysippus (Plain Tiger)
32 Danaus genutia genutia (Common Tiger)
33 Danaus melanippus hegesippus (Black Veined Tiger)
34 Parantica aspasia aspasia (Yellow Glassy Tiger) ***
35 Parantica agleoides agleoides (Dark Glassy Tiger)
36 Ideopsis vulgaris macrina (Blue Glassy Tiger)
37 Idea stolli logani (Common Tree Nymph)
38 Idea leuconoe chersonesia (Mangrove Tree Nymph)
39 Euploea crameri bremeri (Spotted Black Crow)
40 Euploea camaralzeman malayica (Malayan Crow) ***
41 Euploea eyndhovii gardineri (Striped Black Crow)
42 Euploea mulciber mulciber (Striped Blue Crow)
43 Euploea tulliolus ledereri (Dwarf Crow)
44 Euploea phaenareta castelnaui (King Crow)
45 Euploea midamus singapura (Blue Spotted Crow)
46 Euploea radamanthus radamanthus (Magpie Crow)
47 Melanitis leda leda (Common Evening Brown)
48 Elymnias panthera panthera (Tawny Palmfly)
49 Elymnias hypermnestra agina (Common Palmfly)
50 Lethe europa malaya (Bamboo Tree Brown)
51 Mycalesis fusca fusca (Malayan Bush Brown)
52 Mycalesis perseus cepheus (Dingy Bush Brown)
53 Mycalesis mineus macromalayana (Dark Brand Bush Brown)
54 Mycalesis visala phamis
55 Mycalesis orseis nautilus (Purple Bush Brown)
56 Orsotriaena medus cinerea (Nigger)
57 Ypthima huebneri (Common Four Ring)
58 Ypthima fasciata torone
59 Ypthima baldus newboldi (Common Five Ring)
60 Ypthima horsfieldii humei
61 Ypthima pandocus corticaria (Common Three Ring)
62 Faunis canens arcesilas (Common Faun)
63 Amathusia phidippus phidippus (Palm King)
64 Zeuxidia amethystus amethystus (Saturn)
65 Thaumantis klugius lucipor (Dark Blue Jungle Glory)
66 Discophora sondaica despoliata (Common Duffer)
67 Acraea violae (Tawny Coster) [N]
68 Cupha erymanthis lotis (Rustic)
69 Phalanta phalantha phalantha (Leopard)
70 Cirrochroa orissa orissa (Banded Yeoman)
71 Vindula dejone erotella (Cruiser)
72 Terinos terpander robertsia (Royal Assyrian)
73 Cethosia cyane (Leopard Lacewing) [N]
74 Cethosia hypsea hypsina (Malay Lacewing)
75 Junonia hedonia ida (Chocolate Pansy)
76 Junonia atlites atlites (Grey Pansy)
77 Junonia almana javana (Peacock Pansy)
78 Junonia orithya wallacei (Blue Pansy)
79 Vanessa cardui (Painted Lady) [N] ***
80 Vanessa indica indica (Indian Red Admiral) [N] ***
81 Hypolimnas anomala anomala (Malayan Eggfly)
82 Hypolimnas misippus misippus (Danaid Eggfly)
83 Hypolimnas bolina bolina (Great Eggfly)
83a Hypolimnas bolina jacintha (Jacintha Eggfly) [N]
84 Doleschallia bisaltide pratipa (Autumn Leaf) ***
84a Doleschallia bisaltide ?bisaltide (Autumn Leaf) [N]
85 Chersonesia peraka peraka (Little Maplet)
86 Neptis hylas papaja (Common Sailor)
87 Neptis leucoporos cresina (Grey Sailor)
88 Neptis harita harita (Chocolate Sailer)
89 Phaedyma columella singa (Short Banded Sailor)
90 Lasippa heliodore dorelia
91 Lasippa tiga siaka (Burmese Lascar)
92 Pantoporia hordonia hordonia (Common Lascar)
93 Pantoporia paraka paraka (Perak Lascar)
94 Athyma pravara helma (Lance Sergeant) [N]
95 Athyma asura idita (Studded Sergeant)
96 Athyma kanwa kanwa (Dot-Dash Sergeant)
97 Athyma reta moorei  (Malay Staff Sergeant)
98 Athyma nefte subrata (Colour Sergeant)
99 Pandita sinope sinope
100 Moduza procris milonia (Commander)
101 Lebadea martha parkeri (Knight)
101a Lebadea martha malayana (Knight) [N]
102 Tanaecia pelea pelea (Malay Viscount)
103 Tanaecia iapis puseda (Horsfield's Baron)
104 Euthalia monina monina (Malay Baron)
105 Euthalia aconthea gurda (Baron)
106 Euthalia adonia pinwilli (Green Baron)
107 Lexias dirtea merguia [N]
108 Lexias pardalis dirteana (Archduke)
109 Lexias canescens pardalina
110 Eulaceura osteria kumana (Purple Duke)
111 Euripus nyctelius euploeoides (Courtesan)
112 Polyura hebe plautus (Plain Nawab)
113 Polyura schreiber tisamenus (Blue Nawab)
114 Charaxes solon echo (Black Rajah)

Family: Riodinidae
115 Abisara geza niya
116 Abisara saturata kausamboides (Malayan Plum Judy)
117 Abisara savitri savitri (Malay Tailed Judy)
118 Laxita thuisto thuisto (Lesser Harlequin)
119 Taxila haquinus haquinus (The Harlequin)

Family : Lycaenidae
120 Poritia philota philota
121 Poritia sumatrae sumatrae (Sumatran Gem)
122 Liphyra brassolis abbreviata (Moth Butterfly)
123 Miletus gopara gopara
124 Miletus biggsii biggsii (Bigg's Brownie)
125 Miletus symethus petronius
126 Allotinus unicolor unicolor (Lesser Darkie)
127 Logania marmorata damis
128 Spalgis epius epius (The Apefly)
130 Curetis saronis sumatrana (Sumatran Sunbeam)
131 Caleta elna elvira (Elbowed Pierrot)
132 Everes lacturnus rileyi (Indian Cupid)
133 Neopithecops zalmora zalmora (The Quaker)
134 Megisba malaya sikkima  (The Malayan) [N]
135 Acytolepis puspa lambi (Common Hedge Blue)
136 Zizina otis lampa (Lesser Grass Blue)
137 Zizeeria maha serica (Pale Grass Blue) [N]
138 Zizula hylax pygmaea (Pygmy Grass Blue)
139 Chilades pandava pandava (Cycad Blue)
140 Euchrysops cnejus cnejus (Gram Blue)
141 Catochrysops strabo strabo (Forget-me-not)
142 Catochrysops panormus exiguus (Silver Forget-Me-Not)
143 Lampides boeticus (Pea Blue)
144 Jamides bochus nabonassar  (Dark Caerulean)
145 Jamides celeno aelianus (Common Caerulean)
146 Jamides malaccanus malaccanus
147 Jamides caeruleus caeruleus (Sky Blue)
148 Jamides elpis pseudelpis (Glistering Caerulean)
149 Jamides alecto ageladas (Metallic Caerulean)
150 Nacaduba angusta kerriana (White Fourline Blue)
151 Nacaduba sanaya elioti (Jewel Four-Line Blue)
152 Nacaduba pavana singapura
153 Nacaduba beroe neon
154 Nacaduba berenice icena (Rounded 6-Line Blue)
155 Nacaduba biocellata (Two Spotted Line Blue) [N]
156 Nacaduba calauria malayica
157 Ionolyce helicon merguiana (Pointed Line Blue)
158 Prosotas nora superdates (Common Line-Blue)
159 Prosotas dubiosa lumpura (Tailess Line Blue)
160 Catopyrops ancyra (Ancyra Blue) [N]
161 Petrelaea dana dana (Dingy Line Blue) [N]
162 Anthene emolus goberus (Ciliate Blue)
163 Anthene lycaenina miya (Pointed Ciliate Blue)
164 Spindasis syama terana (Club/Black Banded Silverline)
165 Spindasis lohita senama (Long Banded Silverline)
166 Arhopala abseus abseus
167 Arhopala aedias agnis (Large Metallic Oakblue)
168 Arhopala ammon ammon
169 Arhopala amphimuta amphimuta
170 Arhopala antimuta antimuta
171 Arhopala athada athada  (Vinous Oakblue)
172 Arhopala atosia malayana (Tailed Disc Oakblue)
173 Arhopala aurea
174 Arhopala epimuta epiala (Common Disc Oakblue)
175 Arhopala eumolphus maxwelli (Green Oakblue)
176 Arhopala major major
177 Arhopala myrzala lammas
178 Arhopala pseudocentaurus nakula (Centaur OakBlue)
179 Arhopala pseudomuta pseudomuta (Raffles' Oakblue)
180 Arhopala silhetensis adorea (Sylhet Oakblue)
181 Arhopala trogon
182 Flos diardi capeta
183 Flos fulgida singhapura
184 Flos anniella anniella
185 Flos apidanus saturatus
186 Semanga superba deliciosa
187 Surendra vivarna amisena (Acacia Blue)
188 Iraota rochana boswelliana  (Scarce Silverstreak)
189 Catapaecilma major emas (Gray Tinsel)
190 181. Loxura atymnus fuconius (Yamfly)
191 182. Eooxylides tharis distanti (Branded Imperial)
192 Cheritra freja friggia (Common Imperial)
193 Drupadia ravindra moorei (Common Posy)
194 Drupadia rufotaenia rufotaenia (Pygmy Posy)
195 Drupadia theda thesmia (Dark Posy)
196 Horaga syrinx maenala (Ambon Onyx)
197 Pratapa deva relata
198 Tajuria cippus maxentius (Peacock Royal)
199 Tajuria mantra mantra
200 Tajuria dominus dominus
201 Jacoona anasuja anasuja (Great Imperial)
202 Neocheritra amrita amrita (Grand Imperial)
203 Mantoides hypoleuca terana (Green Imperial)
204 Remelana jangala travana (Chocolate Royal)
205 Pseudotajuria donatana donatana
206 Hypolycaena thecloides thecloides
207 Hypolycaena erylus teatus (Common Tit)
208 Zeltus amasa maximinianus (Fluffy Tit)
209 Deudorix elioti
210 Deudorix epijarbas cinnabarus (Cornelian)
211 Virachola kessuma deliochus (Pitcher Blue)
212 Sinthusa nasaka amba (Narrow Spark) [N]
213 Bindahara phocides phocides (The Plane)
214 Rapala domitia domitia (Yellow Flash)
210 Rapala pheretima sequiera (Copper Flash)
215 Rapala suffusa barthema  (Suffused Flash)
216 Rapala dieneces dieneces (Scarlet Flash)
217 Rapala iarbus iarbus (Common Red Flash)
218 Rapala manea chozeba  (Slate Flash)
219 Rapala varuna orseis (Indigo Flash)

Family : Hesperiidae
220 Badamia exclamationis (Brown Awl)
221 Bibasis sena uniformis (Orange-Tail Awl) [N]
222 Burara etelka
223 Burara harisa consobrina (Orange Awlet)
224 Hasora badra badra (Common Awl)
225 Hasora chromus chromus (Common Banded Awl)
226 Hasora schoenherr chuza (Yellow Banded Awl)
227 Hasora taminatus malayana (White Banded Awl)
228 Hasora vitta vitta (Plain Banded Awl)
229 Tapena thwaitesi bornea [N]
230 Odina hieroglyphica ortina
231 Pseudocoladenia dan dhyana (Fulvous Pied Flat) [N]
232 Gerosis sinica minima
233 Tagiades japetus atticus (Common Snow Flat)
234 Tagiades gana gana (Large Snow Flat)
235 Tagiades ultra
236 Tagiades calligana
237 Odontoptilum angulatum angulatum (Chestnut Angle)
238 Ampittia dioscorides camertes (Bush Hopper)
239 Halpe ormenes vilasina
240 Iambrix salsala salsala (Chestnut Bob)
241 Iambrix stellifer stellifer (Starry Bob)
242 Psolos fuligo fuligo (Coon)
243 Ancistroides nigrita maura (Chocolate Demon)
244 Notocrypta paralysos varians (Banded Demon)
245 Udaspes folus (Grass Demon)
246 Suastus gremius gremius (Palm Bob) [N]
247 Suastus everyx everyx [N]
248 Zographetus doxus
249 Hyarotis adrastus praba (Tree Flitter)
250 Quedara monteithi monteithi
251 Plastingia naga (Chequered Lancer)
252 Plastingia pellonia (Yellow Chequered Lancer)
253 Pemara pugnans (Pugnacious Lancer)
254 Pyroneura latoia latoia (Yellow Vein Lancer)
255 Zela zenon [N]
256 Gangara thyrsis thyrsis (Giant Redeye)
257 Erionota acroleuca apicalis
258 Erionota torus
259 Erionota thrax thrax (Banana Skipper)
260 Matapa aria (Common Redeye)
261 Unkana ambasa batara (Hoary Palmer)
262 Hidari irava (Coconut Skipper)
263 Eetion elia
264 Taractrocera ardonia lamia
265 Taractrocera archias quinta [N]
266 Oriens gola pseudolus (Common Dartlet)
267 Potanthus omaha omaha (Lesser Dart)
268 Potanthus serina (Large Dart)
269 Telicota colon stinga (Pale Palm Dart)
270 Telicota augias augias
271 Telicota besta bina
272 Telicota linna [N]
273 Cephrenes acalle niasicus
274 Cephrenes trichopepla (Yellow Palm Dart) [N]
275 Borbo cinnara (Formosan Swift)
276 Pelopidas agna agna (Little Branded Swift)
277 Pelopidas conjunctus conjunctus (Conjoined Swift) [N]
278 Pelopidas mathias mathias (Small Branded Swift)
279 Pelopidas assamensis (Great Swift) [N]
280 Polytremis lubricans lubricans (Contiguous Swift)
281 Baoris farri farri
282 Baoris oceia (Paintbrush Swift)
283 Caltoris cormasa

***Special Notes:
Migratory species (single sighting):
Hebomoia glaucippe aturia (Great Orange Tip)

Vanessa cardui (Painted Lady)
Vanessa indica indica (Indian Red Admiral)

Migratory species (multiple sighthing):
Appias lyncida vasava (Chocolate Albatross)

Suspected species (brought in by Human Agent?)
Parantica aspasia aspasia (Yellow Glassy Tiger) - 2 sighting, 1 by NSS at Alex Butterfly Trail and 1 at Hortpark
Doleschallia bisaltide pratipa (Autumn Leaf) - found in Zoo compound

Removed from the old checklist (no recent sighting & no photograph record):
Delias pasithoe parthenope (Red Base Jezebel)
Euploea camaralzeman malayica (Malayan Crow)
Mycalesis perseoides perseoides
Caltoris philippina philippina



Early stage of Baoris oceia (Paintbrush Swift)


Friday, September 24, 2010

New record for Singapore - Telicota linna (Linna Palm Dart)

Reference to the earlier posting on the early stage of Telicota linna.

After set & dissecting the genitalia of the skipper in question, and also consulted Dr. Laurence G. Kirton, the skipper were then confirmed as Telicota linna.

The keys used in identification illustrated below:





References:
  • The Butterflies of The Malay Peninsula, A.S. Corbet and H.M. Pendlebury, 4th Edition, Malayan Nature Society.
  • Butterflies of Thailand, Pisuth Ek-Amnuay, 1st Edition, 2006





Sunday, August 8, 2010

New addition to the Butterfly of Singapore - Telicota linna (黑脉长标弄蝶)

Observation
Recently my friend found a 5th instar skipper caterpillar, initially we thought it's just a Telicota besta (most common Telicota sp. found in Singapore) but unlike the usual Telicota sp, the head capsule is black instead of the normal light yellowish-brown with black stripe.

It was not until we bred the skipper to adulthood and "set" for details examination. The result turn out to be surprising and a quick comparison against BMP turn out to be a T. linna. 

T. linna was not recorded in Singapore by the earlier author, and described as easily confused with T. besta. It's uncommon species in Peninsular Malaysia, with a restricted distribution from Sikkim to Peninsular Malaysia.


Early Stages
Larva were collected on a species of bamboo (Gramineae) and bred till adult. The species is uncommon in Peninsular Malaysia, and not recorded in Singapore by the earlier author. 
T. linna inhabit lowlands, and prefers open fields, and also occur in urban gardens with bamboo grove.

The larva fold a leaf of host plant with upper surface inwards to form leaf shelter. Pupation take place in the shelter. Pupa is bright orange brown in color and reach 21.5mm.


5th instar larva, feed on species of Bamboo.

Another 5th instar larva, head view


Pupa (21.5mm)

Newly hatched male



Key for separating the species of Telicota: Larger, forewing 16.5 - 18.0mm. Male valva with terminal process long and curved and shoulder projecting as a sharp, triangular point.


male valva - Telicota linna
comparison to Telicota besta

Overview of the male valva of Telicota sp. from "The Butterflies of the Malay Peninsula"


References:
  • The Butterflies of The Malay Peninsula, A.S. Corbet and H.M. Pendlebury, 4th Edition, Malayan Nature Society.

Tuesday, July 27, 2010

Early stage of Graphium sarpedon luctatius (Common Bluebottle) 青凤蝶

Early Stage of Graphium sarpedon luctatius (Common Bluebottle) 青凤蝶

Introduction: 
Common Bluebootle is one of the common butterfly which can be found in both Parks and Nature Reserves, due to plenty of host plant (Cinnamomum iners - Wild Cinnamon 樟树) available & planted almost everywhere in Singapore. The fast flying butterfly is usually found together with Blue Jay (Graphium Evemon) feeding (puddle) on the roadside seepages.

Both genders are look alike except for the scent fold on the hindwing of the male.

Caterpillar Host Plants: Cinnamomum iners (Loranthaceae), Persea odoratissima, Alseodaphne and Litsea.


Sunday, July 4, 2010

Malacca (Melaka) Butterflies (last update 4 Jul 2010)

Malacca, an earliest developed state in Peninsular Malaysia (since 1377), have not much primary forest left, especially in Central Melaka (Melaka Tengah) (314 km²) districts. However, there're still 4 Recreational Forest (Hutan Rekreasi) can be found around the state, namely Ayer Keroh, Bukit Baru Lebah, Sungei Udang and Tanjung Tuan Recreational Forest.

It is interesting to conduct butterflies survey on above recreational forest, since there're not much butterflies information found at this state.

Overview of Malacca state (circled in red)


Google Earth view of Malacca state, not much greenery left, and those at the right hand side are mostly plantation.


Butterflies observed during my several trips to Malacca:
Family: Papilionidae
1. Chilasa clytia clytia (Common Mime)
2. Papilio demoleus malayanus (Lime Butterfly)
3. Papilio polytes romulus (Common Mormon)

Family: Pieridae
4. Catopsilia pyranthe pyranthe (Mottled Emigrant)
5. Appias libythea olferna (Striped Albatross)
6. Delias hyparete metarete (Painted Jezebel)
7. Leptosia nina malayana (Psyche)

Family: Nymphalidae
8. Acraea violae (Tawny Coster) - 19 Jun 2010
9. Euthalia aconthea gurda (Baron)
10. Hypolimnas bolina ?bolina
11. Junonia atlites atlites (Grey Pansy)
12. Junonia orithya wallacei (Blue Pansy)
13. Taxila haquinus haquinus (Harlequin)

Family: Lycaenidae
13. Chilades pandava pandava (Cycad Blue) - 19 Jun 2010
14. Euchrysops cnejus cnejus (Gram Blue)
15. Jamides celeno aelianus (Common Caerulean)
16. Zizina otis lampa (Lesser Grass Blue)

Family: Hesperiidae
17. Udaspes folus (Grass Demon)

Some photos of Malacca Butterflies (not from Butterflies Park)

Zizina otis lampa (Lesser Grass Blue)

Jamides celeno aelianus (Common Caerulean)

Taxila haquinus haquinus (Harlequin)

Taxila haquinus haquinus (Harlequin)

Junonia orithya wallacei (Blue Pansy - female)

Junonia orithya wallacei (Blue Pansy - male)

Delias hyparete metarete (Painted Jezebel)


Hypolimnas bolina ?bolina (Great Eggfly)


There're 4 species of Malaysian butterflies with name malacca:
Prioneris thestylis malaccana
Euthalia malaccana malaccana
Jamides malaccanus malaccanus
Prioneris thestylis malaccana

Saturday, May 15, 2010

Eggs guarding behavior of Hypolimnas anomala anomala (Malayan Eggfly)

The Malayan Eggfly, is a remarkable butterflies where the female showing a unique behaviour of "guarding" their eggs. Some female remains standing over their eggs even until the larvae dispersed to other leaves, and apparently may die in this position (Johnston et al., 1981). This remarkable behaviour is not recorded in others butterfly except Hypolimnas antilope (Schreiner and Nafus, 1991).

The particular female in the photos below, laid more than 1000 eggs. Click on the photo to view higher resolution image with marking.

From field observation, survival rate probably lower than 0.5 percent (only 5 caterpillars found to survive till 5th instar). However, in control environment, all 14 collected caterpillars reached 5th instar (100% survival rate), but interestingly, half of them didn't manage to hang the pupa firm enough on the branches provided but fell on to the bottom of container, and upon closer check, the silk-pad is simply to thin for the pupa to hold on and that could be one of the reason why the pupa can't attached firmly.




 




Saturday, March 13, 2010

Early stage of Pelopidas agna agna (Little Branded Swift , 南亞谷弄蝶)

Early stage of Pelopidas agna agna (Little Branded Swift)


Introduction

Pelopidas agna agna (Little Branded Swift), is very similar to Pelopidas mathias mathias (Small Branded Swift), both are the smallest Pelopidas species in Singapore.

Identifying of the species rely heavily on the male forewing band position versus the 2 radial hyaline spots. The female however, according to several reference, almost impossible to differentiate when compare to P. mathias.

Probably due to small size and difficulties in ID, the species is not in the current Singapore Butterflies Checklist, thus with the discovery, this will be a new addition to the known butterflies fauna in Singapore.


A field shot of 
Pelopidas agna agna


ID key exert from Butterflies of Hong Kong:
On the forewing upperside, a line through the two cell spots projected backwards passes inward towards the midline, in male passing through the lower end of the brand.



ID key illustration:
Hong Kong Butterflies - Philip Yik-fui Lo | Wing-Leung Hui: The 2 radial hyaline spots, if joined in lines, may reach the end of the brand.





ID key exert from BMP:
- Smaller, forewing less than 20mm. Male upperside forewing with a naroow discal stigma from middle of vein 1b to the spot in space 2.
P. agna (17.5 - 20 mm)
- male upperside forewing lower end of stigma reaches vein 1b slightly closer to the termen than to the wing base. Underside hindwing ochreous without a grey tinge.






ID key illustration:
Male upperside forewing lower end of stigma reaches vein 1b slightly closer to the termen (B) than to the wing base (A).


Early stage observation
Larva found at forest fringe in the leaves shelter on Imperata cylindrica (Lalang). The early stage of this species closely resembled of those of P. mathias. Larva hostplant including Panicum maximum (Guinea Grass).


2nd instar larva



3rd instar larva



4th instar larva



5th instar larva



Pupa



A newly enclosed male of Pelopidas agna agna



Male genitalia (right valva)








Special Acknowledgement:
Dr Laurence G. Kirton (Head of Biodiversity and Conservation of Fauna Branch, Tropical Forest Biodiversity Centre, Forest Research Institute of Malaysia)

Young JJ (HKLS Chairman)





References:
  • The Butterflies of The Malay Peninsula, A.S. Corbet and H.M. Pendlebury, 4th Edition, Malayan Nature Society.
  • Butterflies of Thailand, Pisuth Ek-Amnuay, 1st Edition, 2006
  • The Butterflies of Hong Kong, M.J. Bassombe, G. Johnston, F.S. Bascombe
  • Hong Kong Butterflies, Philip Yik-fui Lo, Wing-leung Hui

Checklist of the Butterflies of Peninsular Malaysia

Checklist of the Butterflies of Peninsular Malaysia


Family: Papilionidae

Members of this family are generally large striking flyer. They are also the largest butterflies in the world. 
Although commonly known as Swallowtail Family, some of the species are tailless.



1 Chilasa agestor shirozui
2 Chilasa clytia clytia (Common Mime)
3 Chilasa paradoxa aenigma (Great Blue Mime)
4 Chilasa slateri perses
5 Graphium (Pathysa) aristeus hermocrates (Stripe Swordtail)
6 Graphium agamemnon agamemnon (Tailed Jay)
7 Graphium arycles arycles (Green Jay)
8 Graphium bathycles bathycloides (Veined Jay)
9 Graphium chironides malayanum (Striped Jay)
10 Graphium doson evemonides (Common Jay)
11 Graphium doson kajanga
12 Graphium empedovana
13 Graphium eurypylus mecisteus (Great Jay)
14 Graphium evemon eventus (Blue Jay)
15 Graphium sarpedon luctatius (Common Bluebottle)
16 Lamproptera curius curius (White Dragontail)
17 Lamproptera meges virescens (Green Dragontail)
18 Meandrusa payeni ciminius
19 Pachliopta aristolochiae asteris (Common Rose)
20 Pachliopta coon doubledayi (Common Clubtail)
21 Pachliopta neptunus neptunus (Yellow Bodied Clubtail)
22 Papilio demoleus malayanus (Lime Butterfly)
23 Papilio demolion demolion (Banded Swallowtail)
24 Papilio helenus helenus (Red Helen)
25 Papilio iswara iswara (Great Helen)
26 Papilio iswaroides curtisi
27 Papilio mahadeva
28 Papilio memnon agenor (Great Mormon)
29 Papilio nephelus annulus
30 Papilio nephelus sunatus (Black & White Helen)
31 Papilio palinurus palinurus (Banded Peacock)
32 Papilio paris paris (Paris Peacock)
33 Papilio polytes romulus (Common Mormon)
34 Papilio prexaspes prexaspes (Blue Helen)
35 Parides (Antrophaneura) sycorax egertoni
36 Parides (Atrophaneura) nox erebus
37 Parides (Atrophaneura) varuna varuna
38 Pathysa agetes iponus
39 Pathysa antiphates itamputi (Five Bar Swordtail)
40 Pathysa antiphates pulauensis
41 Pathysa delessertii delessertii (Malayan Zebra)
42 Pathysa macareus macaristus
43 Pathysa macareus perakensis (Lesser Zebra)
44 Pathysa megarus megapenthes
45 Pathysa megarus tiomanensis
46 Pathysa ramaceus pendleburyi (Pendlebury’s Zebra)
47 Troides (Trogonoptera) brookiana albescens (Rajah Brooke's Birdwing)
48 Troides (Trogonoptera) brookiana mollumar/trogon
49 Troides aeacus thomsonii
50 Troides amphrysus ruficollis (Malayan Birdwing)
51 Troides cuneifer paeninsulae
52 Troides helena cerberus (Common Birdwing)

Family: Pieridae
The Pieridae family, commonly called the white and sulfurs, are highly variable in coloration in spite of their name. The butterflies are generally medium in size.

53 Catopsilia pomona pomona (Lemon Emigrant)
54 Catopsilia pyranthe pyranthe (Mottled Emigrant)
55 Catopsilia scylla cornelia (Orange Emigrant)
56 Dercas verhuelli herodorus
57 Eurema ada iona
58 Eurema andersonii andersonii
59 Eurema blanda snelleni (Three Spot Grass Yellow)
60 Eurema brigitta senna (No Brand Grass Yellow)
61 Eurema hecabe contubernalis (Common Grass Yellow)
62 Eurema lacteola lacteola
63 Eurema sari sodalis (Chocolate Grass Yellow)
64 Eurema simulatrix littorea
65 Eurema simulatrix tecmessa
66 Eurema simulatrix tiomanica
67 Eurema tilaha nicevillei
68 Gandaca harina aora
69 Gandaca harina distanti (Tree Yellow)
70 Appias albina albina
71 Appias cardena perakana
72 Appias indra plana (Plain Puffin)
73 Appias lalassis indroides
74 Appias libythea olferna (Striped Albatross)
75 Appias lyncida vasava (Chocolate Albatross)
76 Appias nero figulina (Orange Albatross)
77 Appias pandione lagela (Banded Puffin)
78 Appias paulina distanti (Lesser Albatross)
79 Appias paulina grisea
80 Cepora iudith malaya (Orange Gull)
81 Cepora iudith siamensis
82 Cepora iudith talboti
83 Cepora nadina andersoni (Lesser Gull)
84 Cepora nerissa dapha (Common Gull)
85 Delias acalis perakana
86 Delias agostina johnsoni
87 Delias baracasa dives
88 Delias belladonna malayana
89 Delias descombesi eranthos
90 Delias georgina keda
91 Delias georgina orphne
92 Delias georgina tahanica
93 Delias georgina zenobia
94 Delias hyparete metarete (Painted Jezebel)
95 Delias ninus ninus (Malayan Jezebel)
96 Delias pasithoe parthenope (Red-Base Jezebel)
97 Delias singhapura singhapura
98 Hebomoia glaucippe anomala
99 Hebomoia glaucippe aturia (Great Orange Tip)
100 Hebomoia glaucippe theia
101 Ixias pyrene alticola
102 Ixias pyrene birdi
103 Ixias pyrene verna (Yellow Orange Tip)
104 Leptosia nina malayana (Psyche)
105 Leptosia nina nina
106 Pareronia anais (Common Wanderer)
107 Pareronia valeria lutescens (Wanderer)
108 Phrissura aegis cynis (Forest White)
109 Phrissura aegis pryeri
110 Pieris canidia canidia (Cabbage White)
111 Pieris napi montana
112 Prioneris philonome themana (The Redspot Sawtooth)
113 Prioneris thestylis malaccana
114 Saletara liberia distanti (Malaysian Albatross)

Family: Nymphalidae
Members of this family are generally brush-footed butterflies, this refers to the reduced pair of the first legs or forelegs that are covered in dense hairs. The front pair of legs is inconspicuous and much smaller that the other four. They are not used for walking or holding but for cleaning their antennae and other parts of their body.
Butterflies in this family have a distinctive way of flying, after every wingbeat, they hold their wings stretched out from their body and glide for a while without moving their wings.

115 Eulaceura osteria kumana (Purple Duke)
116 Euripus nyctelius euploeoides (Courtesan)
117 Agatasa calydonia calydonia (The Glorious Begum)
118 Char-axes harmodius maruyamai
119 Charaxes bernardus crepax (Tawny Rajah)
120 Charaxes borneensis praestantius
121 Charaxes distanti distanti
122 Charaxes durnfordi dumfordi
123 Charaxes marmax philosarcus (Yellow Rajah)
124 Charaxes solon echo (Black Rajah)
125 Polyura athamas athamas (Common Nawab)
126 Polyura athamas uraeus
127 Polyura delphis concha (Jewel Nawab)
128 Polyura eudamippus peninsularis
129 Polyura hebe chersonesus
130 Polyura hebe plautus (Plain Nawab)
131 Polyura hebe takizawai
132 Polyura jalysus jalysus
133 Polyura moori moori
134 Polyura schreiber tisamenus (Blue Nawab)
135 Prothoe franck uniformis (Blue Begum)
136 Chersonesia intermedia intermedia
137 Chersonesia nicevillei
138 Chersonesia peraka peraka (Little Maplet)
139 Chersonesia rahria rahria (Wavy Maplet)
140 Chersonesia risa risa
141 Danaus affinis malayanus (Malay Tiger)
142 Danaus chrysippus chrysippus (Plain Tiger)
143 Danaus genutia genutia (Common Tiger)
144 Danaus melanippus hegesippus (Black Veined Tiger)
145 Euploea algea menetriesii
146 Euploea camaralzeman malayica (Malayan Crow)
147 Euploea camaralzeman paraclaudina
148 Euploea core graminifera (Common Indian Crow)
149 Euploea crameri bremeri (Spotted Black Crow)
150 Euploea crameri crameri
151 Euploea doubledayi evalida
152 Euploea eunice leucogonis (Blue Branded King Crow)
153 Euploea eyndhovii gardineri (Striped Black Crow)
154 Euploea klugii erichsonii (Brown King Crow)
155 Euploea midamus chloe
156 Euploea midamus singapura (Blue Spotted Crow)
157 Euploea modesta modesta
158 Euploea modesta tiomana
159 Euploea mulciber mulciber (Striped Blue Crow)
160 Euploea phaenareta castelnaui (King Crow)
161 Euploea radamanthus radamanthus (Magpie Crow)
162 Euploea sylvester harrisii
163 Euploea sylvester near tyrianthia
164 Euploea tulliolus ledereri (Dwarf Crow)
165 Euploea tulliolus near aristotelis
166 Idea hypermnestra linteata
167 Idea leuconoe chersonesia (Mangrove Tree Nymph)
168 Idea lynceus lynceus
169 Idea stolli logani (Common Tree Nymph)
170 Ideopsis gaura kajangensis
171 Ideopsis gaura perakana (Smaller Wood Nymph)
172 Ideopsis juventa sitah (Grey Glassy Tiger)
173 Ideopsis similis persimilis
174 Ideopsis vulgaris macrina (Blue Glassy Tiger)
175 Parantica aglea melanoides
176 Parantica agleoides agleoides (Dark Glassy Tiger)
177 Parantica aspasia aspasia (Yellow Glassy Tiger)
178 Parantica luzonensis aurensis
179 Parantica melaneus sinopion (Chocolate Tiger)
180 Parantica sita ethologa (Yellow Glassy Tiger)
181 Tirumala gautama gautama
182 Tirumala limniace exotica
183 Tirumala septentrionis septentrionis (Dark Blue Tiger)
184 Acraea issoria (Yellow Coster)
185 Acraea violae (Tawny Coster)
186 Cethosia biblis pemanggilensis (Red Lacewing)
187 Cethosia biblis perakana (Red Lacewing)
188 Cethosia hypsea elioti
189 Cethosia hypsea hypsina (Malay Lacewing)
190 Cethosia penthesilea methypsea (Plain Lacewing)
191 Cirrochroa emalea emalea (Malay Yeoman)
192 Cirrochroa malaya malaya
193 Cirrochroa orissa orissa (Banded Yeoman)
194 Cirrochroa satellita satellita
195 Cirrochroa surya siamensis
196 Cirrochroa tyche aurica
197 Cirrochroa tyche rotundata (Common Yeoman)
198 Cupha erymanthis lotis (Rustic)
199 Cupha erymanthis tiomana
200 Phalanta phalantha phalantha (Leopard)
201 Terinos atlita teuthras (Great Assyrian)
202 Terinos clarissa aurensis
203 Terinos clarissa malayanus (Malayan Assyrian)
204 Terinos terpander robertsia (Royal Assyrian)
205 Terinos terpander tiomanensis
206 Vidula dejone erotella (Cruiser)
207 Libythea myrrha hecura
208 Libythea narina rohini
209 Athyma abiasa clerica
210 Athyma asura idita (Studded Sergeant)
211 Athyma cama gynea
212 Athyma kanwa kanwa (Dot-Dash Sergeant)
213 Athyma larymna siamensis
214 Athyma nefte subrata (Colour Sergeant)
215 Athyma perius perius (Common Sergeant)
216 Athyma pravara helma (Lance Sergeant)
217 Athyma ranga malaya
218 Athyma reta moorei (Malay Staff Sergeant)
219 Athyma selenophora amharina (Staff Sergeant)
220 Athyma selenophora selenophora
221 Euthalia aconthea gurda (Baron)
222 Euthalia adonia pinwilli (Green Baron)
223 Euthalia merta merta (White Tipped Baron)
224 Euthalia monina monina (Malay Baron)
225 Lasippa heliodore dorelia (Burmese Lascar)
226 Lasippa tiga siaka (Malayan Lascar)
227 Lebadea martha parkeri (Knight)
228 Lexias canescens pardalina
229 Lexias dirtea merguia (Black Archduke)
230 Lexias pardalis dirteana (Archduke)
231 Moduza procris milonia (Commander)
232 Neptis harita harita (Chocolate Sailor)
233 Neptis hylas papaja (Common Sailor)
234 Neptis leucoporos cresina (Grey Sailor)
235 Pandita sinope sinope
236 Pantoporia hordonia hordonia (Common Lascar)
237 Pantoporia paraka paraka (Perak Lascar)
238 Phaedyma columella singa (Short Banded Sailor)
239 Tanaecia iapis puseda (Horsfield's Baron)
240 Tanaecia pelea pelea (Malay Viscount)
241 Amathusia binghami
242 Amathusia friderici holmanhunti
243 Amathusia masina malaya
244 Amathusia ochraceofusca ochraceofusca
245 Amathusia perakana perakana
246 Amathusia phidippus phidippus (Palm King)
247 Amathusia schoenbergi schoenbergi
248 Amathuxidia amythaon dilucida (Koh-I-Noor)
249 Discophora necho engamon
250 Discophora sondaica despoliata (Common Duffer)
251 Discophora timora perakensis (Great Duffer)
252 Enispe intermedia corbeti
253 Faunis canens arcesilas (Common Faun)
254 Faunis gracilis
255 Faunis kirata
256 Melanocyma faunula faunula (Pallid Faun)
257 Taenaris horsfieldii birchi
258 Thaumantis klugius lucipor (Dark Blue Jungle Glory)
259 Thaumantis noureddin noureddin (Dark Jungle Glory)
260 Thaumantis odana pishuna
261 Thauria aliris pseudaliris (Tufted Jungle King)
262 Zeuxidia amethystus amethystus (Saturn)
263 Zeuxidia aurelius aurelius (Giant Saturn)
264 Zeuxidia doubledayi doubledayi
265 Amnesia decora perakana
266 Argyreus hyperbius sumatrensis (Indian Fritillary)
267 Ariadne ariadne ariadne (The Angled Castor)
268 Ariadne isaeus isaeus
269 Ariadne merione ginosa (Common Castor)
270 Ariadne specularia arca
271 Bassarona dunya dunya (Great Marquis)
272 Bassarona recta monilis (Red-Spot Marquis)
273 Bassarona teuta goodrichi (Banded Marquis)
274 Bassarona teuta rayana
275 Bassarona teuta tiomanica
276 Cyrestis cocles earli
277 Cyrestis maenalis martini (Straight Line Mapwing)
278 Cyrestis nivea nivalis
279 Cyrestis nivea pigmentosa
280 Cyrestis themire pemanggilensis
281 Cyrestis themire robinsoni
282 Cyrestis themire siamensis
283 Cyrestis themire themire
284 Dichorragia nesimachus deiokes (The Constable)
285 Doleschallia bisaltide ?bisaltide (Autumn Leaf)
286 Dophla evelina compta (Red-spot Duke Latin)
287 Euthalia aconthea garuda
288 Euthalia adonia beata
289 Euthalia agnis paupera
290 Euthalia alpheda langkawica
291 Euthalia alpheda yamuna
292 Euthalia anosia bunaya
293 Euthalia djata rubidifascia
294 Euthalia djata siamica
295 Euthalia eriphylae raya
296 Euthalia eriphylae subsp.
297 Euthalia ipona
298 Euthalia kanda marana
299 Euthalia lubentina lubentina
300 Euthalia mahadeva zichrina
301 Euthalia malaccana malaccana
302 Euthalia merta milleri
303 Euthalia merta tioma
304 Euthalia monina insularis
305 Euthalia phemius phemius
306 Euthalia whiteheadi mariae
307 Herona marathus angustata (Yellow Pasha)
308 Herona sumatrana dusuntua
309 Hestina mimetica ruvanella
310 Hypolimnas anomala anomala (Malayan Eggfly)
311 Hypolimnas bolina bolina (Great Eggfly)
312 Hypolimnas misippus misippus (Danaid Eggfly)
313 Junonia almana javana (Peacock Pansy)
314 Junonia atlites atlites (Grey Pansy)
315 Junonia hedonia ida (Chocolate Pansy)
316 Junonia hedonia seitzi
317 Junonia hierta hierta (Yellow Pansy)
318 Junonia iphita horsfieldi (Chocolate Soldier)
319 Junonia lemonias lemonias (Lemon Pansy)
320 Junonia orithya wallacei (Blue Pansy)
321 Kallima limborgii amplirufa (Leaf Butterfly)
322 Kaniska canace perakana (Blue Admiral)
323 Laringa castelnaui castelnaui
324 Lasippa monata monata
325 Lasippa tiga camboja
326 Lebadea martha martha
327 Lexias cyanipardus sandakana (Great Archduke)
328 Lexias dirtea iwasakii
329 Moduza procris procris
330 Moduza procris tioma
331 Neptis anjana hyria
332 Neptis clinia leuconata
333 Neptis clinioides gunongensis
334 Neptis duryodana nesia
335 Neptis ilira cindia
336 Neptis magadha charon
337 Neptis miah batara
338 Neptis nata gononata
339 Neptis omeroda omeroda
340 Neptis sankara peninsularis
341 Neptis sedata
342 Neptis soma pendleburyi
343 Paduca fasciata fasciata (Little Banded Yeoman)
344 Pantoporia aurelia aurelia
345 Pantoporia dindinga
346 Pantoporia sandaka sandaka
347 Parthenos sylvia lilacinus (Clipper)
348 Phaedyma columella parvimacula (Short-banded Sailer)
349 Phalanta alcippe alcesta (Small Leopard)
350 Phalanta alcippe aurica
351 Phalanta alcippe tiomana
352 Rhinopalpa polynice eudoxia (Wizard)
353 Rohana parisatis siamensis
354 Sephisa chandra stubbsi
355 Stibochiona nicea subucula
356 Sumalia agneya
357 Sumalia daraxa theoda
358 Symbrenthia hippoclus selangorana
359 Symbrenthia hypatia chersonesia
360 Symbrenthia hypselis sinis
361 Symbrenthia lilaea luciana (Common Jester)
362 Tanaecia aruna aruna
363 Tanaecia clathrata violaria
364 Tanaecia cocytus cocytus
365 Tanaecia coelebs
366 Tanaecia flora andersonii
367 Tanaecia flora flora
368 Tanaecia godartii asoka (Malay Count)
369 Tanaecia godartii puloa
370 Tanaecia julii bougainvillei (Common Earl)
371 Tanaecia julii xiphiones
372 Tanaecia lepidea matala
373 Tanaecia munda waterstradti
374 Tanaecia palguna consanguinea
375 Tanaecia pelea irenae
376 Vagrans egista macromalayana (The Vagrant)
377 Vanessa indica indica (Indian Red Admiral)
378 Vindula dejone rafflesi
379 Vindula dejone tiomana
380 Vindula erota chersonesia
381 Vindula erota erota (Common Cruiser)
382 Yoma sabina vasuki
383 Coelites epiminthia epiminthia
384 Coelites euptychioides humilis
385 Elymnias casiphone saueri
386 Elymnias dara darina
387 Elymnias esaca esaca
388 Elymnias harterti harterti
389 Elymnias hypermnestra agina (Common Palmfly)
390 Elymnias hypermnestra discrepans
391 Elymnias hypermnestra nimota
392 Elymnias hypermnestra tinctoria
393 Elymnias kamara erinyes
394 Elymnias kuenstleri kuenstleri
395 Elymnias nesaea lioneli (Tiger Palmfly)
396 Elymnias panthera panthera (Tawny Palmfly)
397 Elymnias panthera tiomanica
398 Elymnias patna hanitschi
399 Elymnias penanga penanga (Pointed Palmfly)
400 Erites angularis angularis
401 Erites argentina delia
402 Erites elegans distincta
403 Erites medura russelli
404 Ethope diademoides hislopi
405 Lethe chandica namura
406 Lethe confusa enima (Banded Tree Brown)
407 Lethe europa malaya (Bamboo Tree Brown)
408 Lethe mekara gopaka (Common Red Forrester)
409 Lethe minerva minerva
410 Lethe sinorix vanda
411 Lethe verma robinsoni (Straight Treebrown)
412 Lethe vindhya luaba
413 Melanitis leda leda (Common Evening Brown)
414 Melanitis phedima abdullae (Dark Evening Brown)
415 Melanitis zitenius auletes
416 Mycalesis anapita anapita
417 Mycalesis anaxias senoi
418 Mycalesis anaxioides
419 Mycalesis dohertyi dohertyi
420 Mycalesis fusca fusca (Malayan Bush Brown)
421 Mycalesis horsfieldi hermana
422 Mycalesis intermedia distanti
423 Mycalesis janardana sagittigera (Common Bush Brown)
424 Mycalesis maianeas maianeas
425 Mycalesis mineus macromalayana (Dark Brand Bush Brown)
426 Mycalesis mnasicles perna
427 Mycalesis oroatis ustulata (Red Bush Brown)
428 Mycalesis orseis nautilus (Purple Bush Brown)
429 Mycalesis patiana
430 Mycalesis perseoides perseoides
431 Mycalesis perseus cepheus (Dingy Bush Brown)
432 Mycalesis visala phamis (Long Brand Bush Brown)
433 Neorina lowii neophyta (Malayan Owl)
434 Orsotriaena medus cinerea (Nigger)
435 Ragadia crisilda critolina
436 Ragadia makuta siponta (Malayan Ringlet)
437 Xanthotaenia busiris busiris (Yellow Barred)
438 Ypthima baldus newboldi (Common Five Ring)
439 Ypthima dohertyi mossmani
440 Ypthima fasciata torone (Common Six Ring)
441 Ypthima horsfieldii humei
442 Ypthima huebneri (Common Four Ring)
443 Ypthima pandocus corticaria (Common Three Ring)
444 Ypthima pandocus tahanensis
445 Ypthima philomela philomela
446 Ypthima savara tonkiniana

Family: Riodinidae

447 Abisara geza niya
448 Abisara kausambi kausambi
449 Abisara kausambi kausambi
450 Abisara neophron chelina
451 Abisara saturata kausambioides (Malayan Plum Judy)
452 Abisara savitri savitri (Malay Tailed Judy)
453 Dodona deodata anu
454 Dodona egeon confluens (Orange Punch)
455 Dodona eugenes chaseni
456 Laxita thuisto thuisto (Lesser Harlequin)
457 Paralaxita damajanti damajanti (Malay Red Harlequin)
458 Paralaxita orphna laocoon (Banded Harlequin)
459 Paralaxita telesia lyclene (Malay Red Harlequin)
460 Stiboges nymphidia nymphidia
461 Taxila haquinus haquinus (Harlequin)
462 Zemeros emesoide emesoides
463 Zemeros flegyas albipunctatus (Punchinello)
464 Zemeros flegyas allica (Common Punchinello)

Family: Lycaenidae
Nearly all Lycaenidae are small yet colorful butterflies. The family consisting of Hair-streaks, Coppers and Blues. Many species are associate with ants during their early stage of life and practise mutual symbiosis with ants.

465 Curetis bulis stigmata (Bright Sunbeam)
466 Curetis felderi
467 Curetis freda
468 Curetis insularis pseudoinsularis
469 Curetis regula (Regular Sunbeam)
470 Curetis santana malayica (Malayan Sunbeam)
471 Curetis saronis sumatrana (Sumatran Sunbeam)
472 Curetis sperthis kawazoei
473 Curetis sperthis sperthis
474 Curetis tagalica jopa
475 Curetis tagalica labuana
476 Acupicta bubases
477 Acupicta flemingi
478 Acytolepis puspa lambi (Common Hedge Blue)
479 Acytolepis puspa volumnia
480 Amblypodia anita anita (Purple Leaf Blue)
481 Amblypodia anita parva
482 Amblypodia narada taooana
483 Ancema blanka blanka (Silver Royal)
484 Ancema ctesia ctesia (Bi-spot Royal)
485 Anthene emolus goberus (Ciliate Blue)
486 Anthene licates dusuntua
487 Anthene lycaenina miya (Pointed Ciliate Blue)
488 Araotes lapithis uruwela (The Witch)
489 Arhopala abseus abseus
490 Arhopala ace ace
491 Arhopala achelous achelous
492 Arhopala achelous malu
493 Arhopala acta
494 Arhopala aedias agnis (Large Metallic Oakblue)
495 Arhopala aedias meritatas
496 Arhopala agaba
497 Arhopala agelastus agelastus
498 Arhopala agelastus perissa
499 Arhopala agesias
500 Arhopala agesilaus gesa
501 Arhopala agrata agrata
502 Arhopala aida aida (White-Stained Oakblue)
503 Arhopala aida ophir
504 Arhopala alaconia media
505 Arhopala alitaeus mirabella
506 Arhopala alitaeus pardenas
507 Arhopala allata pandora
508 Arhopala ammon ammon
509 Arhopala ammonides chunsu
510 Arhopala ammonides monava
511 Arhopala amphimuta amphimuta
512 Arhopala amphimuta milleriana
513 Arhopala anarte
514 Arhopala anella
515 Arhopala anthelus grahami
516 Arhopala antimuta antimuta
517 Arhopala ariana wilcocksi
518 Arhopala arianaga stat. n.
519 Arhopala ariel
520 Arhopala aroa aroa
521 Arhopala arvina adalitas
522 Arhopala athada athada (Vinous Oakblue)
523 Arhopala atosia jahara
524 Arhopala atosia malayana (Tailed Disc Oakblue)
525 Arhopala aurea
526 Arhopala aurelia
527 Arhopala avatha
528 Arhopala avathina avathina
529 Arhopala azinis azinis
530 Arhopala barami penanga
531 Arhopala bazaloides bazaloides
532 Arhopala bazalus zalinda (Powdered Oak Blue)
533 Arhopala belphoebe cowani
534 Arhopala buddha cooperi
535 Arhopala caeca
536 Arhopala camdana camdana
537 Arhopala cardoni
538 Arhopala centaurus nakula (Centaur Oakblue)
539 Arhopala cleander aphadantas
540 Arhopala corinda acestes
541 Arhopala corinda corestes
542 Arhopala delta
543 Arhopala democritus democritus (White-dot Oakblue)
544 Arhopala democritus lycaenaria
545 Arhopala dispar pendleburyi
546 Arhopala elizabethae
547 Arhopala elopura elopura
548 Arhopala epimete duessa
549 Arhopala epimete suedas
550 Arhopala epimuta epiala (Common Disc Oakblue)
551 Arhopala eumolphus maxwelli (Green Oakblue)
552 Arhopala evansi
553 Arhopala fulla ignara
554 Arhopala fulla intaca
555 Arhopala havilandi kota
556 Arhopala hellada ozana
557 Arhopala hellenore siroes
558 Arhopala horsfieldi basiviridis
559 Arhopala horsfieldi eurysthenes
560 Arhopala hypomuta hypomuta
561 Arhopala ijanensis
562 Arhopala inornata inornate
563 Arhopala johoreana johoreana
564 Arhopala kinabala
565 Arhopala kurzi
566 Arhopala labuana
567 Arhopala lurida
568 Arhopala major major
569 Arhopala major parvimaculata
570 Arhopala metamuta metamuta
571 Arhopala milleri
572 Arhopala moolaiana maya
573 Arhopala moolaiana yajuna
574 Arhopala moorei busa
575 Arhopala muta maranda
576 Arhopala myrzala conjuncta
577 Arhopala myrzala lammas
578 Arhopala myrzalina
579 Arhopala norda norda
580 Arhopala norda ronda subsp. n.
581 Arhopala normani
582 Arhopala opalina azata
583 Arhopala overdijkinki unda
584 Arhopala paraganesa mendava
585 Arhopala paralea
586 Arhopala perimuta regina
587 Arhopala phaenops sandakani
588 Arhopala phanda phanda
589 Arhopala pseudocentaurus dixoni
590 Arhopala pseudomuta ariavana
591 Arhopala pseudomuta pseudomuta (Raffles' Oakblue)
592 Arhopala sceva indra
593 Arhopala selta hislopi
594 Arhopala semperi russelli
595 Arhopala silhetensis adorea (Sylhet Oakblue)
596 Arhopala silhetensis silhetensis
597 Arhopala similis
598 Arhopala sintanga tani subsp. n.
599 Arhopala stinga
600 Arhopala stubbsi
601 Arhopala sublustris ridleyi
602 Arhopala trogon
603 Arhopala tropaea
604 Arhopala varro selama
605 Arhopala vihara hirava
606 Arhopala vihara vihara
607 Arhopala wildeyana havea
608 Arhopala wildeyana wildeyana
609 Arhopala zambra zambra
610 Arhopala zylda elioti
611 Artipe anna
612 Artipe eryx excellens (Green Flash)
613 Austrozephyrus absolon malayicus
614 Bindahara phocides phocides (The Plane)
615 Britomartis cleoboides viga
616 Bullis buto cowani
617 Bullis elioti elioti
618 Bullis stigmata
619 Caleta elna elvira (Elbowed Pierrot)
620 Caleta elna epeus
621 Caleta roxus pemanggilensis
622 Caleta roxus pothus (Straight Pierrot)
623 Caleta roxus rhodoides subsp. n.
624 Callenya lenya lenya
625 Castalius rosimon rosimon (Common Pierrot)
626 Catapaecilma elegans zephyria
627 Catapaecilma evansi evansi
628 Catapaecilma lila
629 Catapaecilma major emas (Gray Tinsel)
630 Catochrysops panormus exiguus (Silver Forget-me-not)
631 Catochrysops strabo strabo (Forget-me-not)
632 Catopyrops ancyra (Ancyra Blue)
633 Cebrella pellecebra mouitoni
634 Cebrella pellecebra pellecebra
635 Celastrina lavendularis isabella (Plain Hedge Blue)
636 Celatoxia marginata splendens (Margined Hedge Blue)
637 Charana mandarina splendida
638 Chelakina nigerrima kerionga subsp. n.
639 Cheritra freja frigga
640 Cheritra freja frigga (Common Imperial)
641 Chilades lajus tavoyanus (Lime Blue)
642 Chilades pandava pandava (Cycad Blue)
643 Chliaria balua gabrieli
644 Chliaria kina celastroides
645 Chliaria othona semanga
646 Chliaria othona subsp.
647 Chliaria pahanga
648 Creon cleobis queda (Broadtail Royal)
649 Dacalana burmana
650 Dacalana cremera ricardi
651 Dacalana sinhara sinhara
652 Dacalana vidura azyada
653 Deudorix elioti
654 Deudorix epijarbas cinnabarus (Cornelian)
655 Deudorix hypargyria hypargyria
656 Deudorix staudingeri
657 Deudorix sumatrensis
658 Discolampa ethion thalimar (Banded Blue Pierrot)
659 Drina cowani
660 Drina donina usira
661 Drina maneia
662 Drupadia cinesoides
663 Drupadia estella semperna
664 Drupadia johorensis
665 Drupadia niasica biranta
666 Drupadia niasica perlisa
667 Drupadia ravindra caerulea
668 Drupadia ravindra moorei (Common Posy)
669 Drupadia rufotaenia rufotaenia (Pygmy Posy)
670 Drupadia scaeva near subsp. melisa
671 Drupadia scaeva scaeva
672 Drupadia theda renonga
673 Drupadia theda thesmia (Dark Posy)
674 Eooxylides tharis distanti (Branded Imperial)
675 Euchrysops cnejus cnejus (Gram Blue)
676 Everes lacturnus rileyi (Indian Cupid)
677 Flos anniella anniella
678 Flos anniella artegal
679 Flos apidanus ahamus
680 Flos apidanus saturatus (Plain Plushblue)
681 Flos areste
682 Flos diardi capeta (Bifid Plushblue)
683 Flos fulgida singhapura
684 Flos morphina morphina
685 Heliophorus epicles tweediei (Purple Sapphire)
686 Heliophorus ila malaya (Restricted Purple Sapphire)
687 Horaga albimacula albistigmata (Brown Onyx)
688 Horaga amethystus purpurescens
689 Horaga araotina
690 Horaga chalcedonyx malaya
691 Horaga onyx sardonyx (Common Onyx)
692 Horaga syrinx maenala (Ambon Onyx)
693 Hypochrysops coelisparsus kerri
694 Hypolycaena amabilis lisba
695 Hypolycaena erylus teatus (Common Tit)
696 Hypolycaena merguia skapane
697 Hypolycaena thecloides thecloides
698 Ionolyce helicon merguiana (Pointed Line Blue)
699 Iraota distanti distanti
700 Iraota rochana boswelliana (Scarce Silverstreak)
701 Iraota timoleon wickii (Silver Streak Blue)
702 Jacoona anasuja anasuja (Great Imperial)
703 Jamides abdul abdul
704 Jamides abdul pemanggilensis
705 Jamides alecto ageladas (Metallic Caerulean)
706 Jamides aratus adana
707 Jamides bochus nabonassar (Dark Caerulean)
708 Jamides caeruleus caeruleus (Sky Blue)
709 Jamides celeno aelianus (Common Caerulean)
710 Jamides cyta minna
711 Jamides elpis pseudelpis (Glistering Caerulean)
712 Jamides ferrari evansi
713 Jamides malaccanus aurensis
714 Jamides malaccanus malaccanus (Soldier Caerulean)
715 Jamides parasaturatus paramalaccanus
716 Jamides philatus subditus
717 Jamides pura pura
718 Jamides talinga
719 Jamides virgulatus nisanca
720 Jamides zebra lakatti
721 Lampides boeticus (Pea Blue / Long-tailed Blue)
722 Loxura atymnus fuconius (Yamfly)
723 Loxura cassiopeia cassiopeia (Larger Yamfly)
724 Lycaenopsis haraldus haraldus
725 Mahathala ariadeva ariadeva
726 Manto hypoleuca terana (Green Imperial)
727 Mantoides gama gama
728 Megisba malaya sikkima (The Malayan)
729 Monodontides musina musina
730 Nacaduba angusta kerriana (White Four-Line Blue)
731 Nacaduba berenice icena (Rounded Six-Line Blue)
732 Nacaduba beroe neon
733 Nacaduba calauria malayica
734 Nacaduba hermus swatipa
735 Nacaduba kirtoni
736 Nacaduba kurava nemana (Transparent Six Line Blue)
737 Nacaduba pactolus odon (Large Four-Line Blue)
738 Nacaduba pavana singapura
739 Nacaduba pavana vajuva
740 Nacaduba pendleburyi penangensis
741 Nacaduba pendleburyi pendleburyi (Malayan Four-line Blue)
742 Nacaduba russelli
743 Nacaduba sanaya elioti (Jewel Four-Line Blue)
744 Nacaduba solta
745 Nacaduba subperusia intricata
746 Nacaduba subperusia lysa
747 Neocheritra amrita amrita (Grand Imperial)
748 Neocheritra fabronia lina
749 Neomyrina nivea hiemalis
750 Neomyrina nivea periculosa
751 Neopithecops zalmora zalmora (Quaker)
752 Niphanda asialis
753 Niphanda cymbia cymbia
754 Niphanda stubbsi
755 Niphanda tessellata tessellata
756 Oreolyce archena archena
757 Petrelaea dana
758 Pithecops corvus corvus (Forest Quaker)
759 Pithecops fulgens fulgens
760 Plautella cossaea parnbui
761 Plautella cossaea sonchus
762 Pratapa deva relata
763 Pratapa icetas sakaia
764 Pratapa icetoides calculis
765 Prosotas aluta nanda
766 Prosotas bhutea
767 Prosotas dubiosa lumpura (Tailless Line Blue)
768 Prosotas gracilis ni
769 Prosotas lutea sivoka
770 Prosotas nelides
771 Prosotas nora superdates (Common Line-Blue)
772 Prosotas pia pia
773 Pseudotajuria donatana donatana (Golden Royal)
774 Purlisa gigantea gigantea
775 Rachana jalindra burbona (Banded Royal)
776 Rapala abnormis abnormis
777 Rapala cowani
778 Rapala damona
779 Rapala dieneces dieneces (Scarlet Flash)
780 Rapala domitia domitia (Yellow Flash)
781 Rapala domitia flemingi
782 Rapala hades
783 Rapala iarbus iarbus (Common Red Flash)
784 Rapala manea chozeba (Slate Flash)
785 Rapala nissa pahangana
786 Rapala pheretima sequeira (Copper Flash)
787 Rapala pheretima tiomana
788 Rapala rhodopis
789 Rapala rhoecus rhoecus
790 Rapala scintilla scintilla
791 Rapala suffusa barthema (Suffused Flash)
792 Rapala varuna orseis (Indigo Flash)
793 Remelana jangala travana (Chocolate Royal)
794 Ritra aurea volumnia
795 Semanga superba deliciosa
796 Sinthusa malika amata
797 Sinthusa nasaka amba (Narrow Spark)
798 Sithon nedymond ismarus
799 Sithon nedymond nedymond (The Plush)
800 Spindasis kutu
801 Spindasis lohita senama (Long-Banded Silverline)
802 Spindasis seliga seliga
803 Spindasis syama terana (Club Silverline)
804 Suasa lisides suessa
805 Surendra florimel
806 Surendra vivarna amisena (Acacia Blue)
807 Tajuria albiplaga alixae
808 Tajuria berensis larutensis
809 Tajuria cippus maxentius (Peacock Royal)
810 Tajuria deudorix ingeni
811 Tajuria dominus dominus
812 Tajuria inexpectata
813 Tajuria isaeus verna
814 Tajuria ister tussis
815 Tajuria luculenta taorana
816 Tajuria maculata (Spotted Royal)
817 Tajuria mantra mantra (Felder's Royal)
818 Tajuria megistia thria
819 Tajuria sunia
820 Tajuria yajna selangorana
821 Tarucus waterstradti vileja
822 Thamala marciana marciana
823 Thamala marciana sarupa
824 Thrix scopula nisibis
825 Ticherra acte liviana
826 Tongeia potanini glycon (Dark Cupid)
827 Udara akasa catullus
828 Udara albocaerulea scharffi (Albocaerulean)
829 Udara aristinus klossi
830 Udara camenae pendleburyi
831 Udara coalita briga
832 Udara cyma cyma
833 Udara dilecta dilecta (Pale Hedge Blue)
834 Udara placidula irenae
835 Udara rona catius
836 Udara selma tanarata
837 Udara toxopeusi toxopeusi
838 Una usta usta
839 Virachola kessuma deliochus (Pitcher Blue)
840 Virachola smilis smilis
841 Virachola subguttata malaya
842 Yasoda pita dohertyi
843 Yasoda pitane laruta
844 Zeltus amasa maximinianus (Fluffy Tit)
845 Zinaspa todara karennia
846 Zizeeria karsandra (Dark Grass Blue)
847 Zizeeria maha serica (Pale Grass Blue)
848 Zizina otis lampa (Lesser Grass Blue)
849 Zizula hylax pygmaea (Pygmy Grass Blue)
850 Allotinus albifasciatus
851 Allotinus apries apries
852 Allotinus borneensis
853 Allotinus corbeti
854 Allotinus davidis
855 Allotinus fabius arrius
856 Allotinus fallax apus
857 Allotinus horsfleldi permagnus
858 Allotinus leogoron leogoron
859 Allotinus portunus maitus
860 Allotinus sarrastes
861 Allotinus strigatus malayanus
862 Allotinus substrigosus substrigosus
863 Allotinus subviolaceus subviolaceus
864 Allotinus unicolor unicolor (Lesser Darkie)
865 Liphyra brassolis abbreviata (The Moth Butterfly)
866 Logania distanti massalia
867 Logania malayica malayica
868 Logania marmorata damis
869 Logania regina sriwa
870 Miletus biggsii biggsii (Biggs's Brownie)
871 Miletus chinensis learchus (Common Brownie)
872 Miletus gaesa gaesa
873 Miletus gallus gallus
874 Miletus gigantes
875 Miletus gopara gopara
876 Miletus heracleion heracleion
877 Miletus nymphis fictus
878 Miletus symethus petronius
879 Miletus symethus solitarius
880 Miletus valeus
881 Spalgis epius epius (Apefly)
882 Spalgis epius near subsp. nubilus
883 Taraka hamada mendesia (Lesser Forest Blue)
884 Taraka mahanetra
885 Cyaniriodes libna andersonii (The Emerald)
886 Deramas alixae
887 Deramas antynax
888 Deramas anyx
889 Deramas arshadorum
890 Deramas basrii sp.n.
891 Deramas jasoda bradamante
892 Deramas jasoda jasoda
893 Deramas livens livens
894 Deramas nelvis nelvis
895 Deramas nolens pasteuri
896 Poritia erycinoides phraatica
897 Poritia hewitsoni taleva
898 Poritia manilia evansi
899 Poritia manilia manilia
900 Poritia phama rajata
901 Poritia phama regia
902 Poritia philota philota
903 Poritia pleurata
904 Poritia promula elegans
905 Poritia sumatrae sumatrae (Sumatran Gem)
906 Simiskina pasira
907 Simiskina pavonica
908 Simiskina pediada
909 Simiskina phalena phalena
910 Simiskina phalia potina
911 Simiskina pharyge deolina (The Blue Brilliant)
912 Simiskina pheretia pheretia
913 Simiskina philura elioti
914 Simiskina proximo dohertyi
915 Simiskina sibatika

Family: Hesperiidae
Skippers, are generally small butterflies with thick head and big eyes. Skippers have small wings in proportion to their heavy bodies, therefore, these butterflies move their wings at a high speed when flying. This makes their flight extreme fast and darting.



916 Badamia exclamationis (Brown Awl)
917 Bibasis sena uniformis (Orange-Tail Awl)
918 Burara etelka (Great Orange Awlet)
919 Burara gomata lalita (Pale Green Awlet)
920 Burara harisa consobrina (Orange Awlet)
921 Burara jaina velva
922 Burara oedipodea (Branded Orange Awlet)
923 Burara owstoni
924 Burara tuckeri
925 Choaspes benjaminii flavens (Indian Awl King)
926 Choaspes hemixanthus furcatus (Orange Red Skirt)
927 Choaspes plateni caudatus
928 Choaspes subcaudatus crawfurdi
929 Hasora badra badra (Common Awl)
930 Hasora chromus chromus (Common Banded Awl)
931 Hasora khoda minsona
932 Hasora leucospila leucospila (Violet Awl)
933 Hasora lizetta
934 Hasora mavis
935 Hasora mixta prabha
936 Hasora mus pahanga
937 Hasora myra funebris
938 Hasora quadripunctata gnaeus
939 Hasora salanga
940 Hasora schoenherr chuza (Yellow Banded Awl)
941 Hasora taminatus malayana (White Banded Awl)
942 Hasora vitta vitta (Plain Banded Awl)
943 Hasora wilcocksi
944 Hasora zoma
945 Acerbas anthea anthea
946 Acerbas martini
947 Aeromachus jhora creta
948 Aeromachus pygmaeus
949 Ampittia dioscorides camertes (Bush Hopper)
950 Ancistroides armatus armatus
951 Ancistroides gemmifer gemmifer
952 Ancistroides nigrita maura (Chocolate Demon)
953 Arnetta verones
954 Astictopterus jama jama (Forest Hopper)
955 Baoris farri farri (刺胫弄蝶)
956 Baoris oceia (Paintbrush Swift)
957 Baoris penicillata
958 Borbo cinnara cinnara (Formosan Swift)
959 Caltoris bromus bromus
960 Caltoris brunnea caere
961 Caltoris cahira austeni
962 Caltoris cormasa
963 Caltoris malaya
964 Caltoris philippina philippina
965 Caltoris plebeia
966 Caltoris sirius fusca
967 Caltoris tulsi tulsi
968 Cephrenes acalle kliana
969 Cephrenes acalle niasicus
970 Cephrenes trichopepla (Yellow Palm Dart)
971 Cupitha purreea (Waxy Dart)
972 Eetion elia (White Spot Palmer)
973 Erionota acroleuca apicalis
974 Erionota harmachis
975 Erionota hislopi
976 Erionota sybirita
977 Erionota thrax thrax (Banana Skipper)
978 Erionota torus
979 Gangara lebadea lebadea (Banded Redeye)
980 Gangara sanguinocculus (Small Redeye)
981 Gangara thyrsis thyrsis (Giant Redeye)
982 Ge geta
983 Halpe arcuata
984 Halpe aurifera
985 Halpe clara
986 Halpe elana
987 Halpe flava
988 Halpe hauxwelli
989 Halpe hieron
990 Halpe insignis
991 Halpe kusala
992 Halpe ormenes vilasina (Dark Banded Ace)
993 Halpe pelethronix pelethronix
994 Halpe porus (Moore's Ace)
995 Halpe sikkima
996 Halpe toxopea
997 Halpe veluvana brevicornis
998 Halpe wantona
999 Halpe zema zamba
1000 Halpe zinda zodia
1001 Hidari bhawani
1002 Hidari doesoena doesoena
1003 Hidari irava (Coconut Skipper)
1004 Hyarotis adrastus praba (Tree Flitter)
1005 Hyarotis iadera
1006 Hyarotis microsticta microsticta
1007 Hyarotis stubbsi
1008 Iambrix distanti
1009 Iambrix salsala salsala (Chestnut Bob)
1010 Iambrix stellifer (Starry Bob)
1011 Idmon obliquans obliquans
1012 Isma bononia bononia
1013 Isma bononoides
1014 Isma cronus
1015 Isma damocles
1016 Isma feralia lenya
1017 Isma flemingi
1018 Isma guttulifera kuala
1019 Isma hislopi
1020 Isma iapis iapis
1021 Isma miosticta
1022 Isma protoclea obscura
1023 Isma umbrosa umbrosa
1024 Iton semamora semamora
1025 Koruthaialos butleri
1026 Koruthaialos rubecula rubecula (Narrow-banded Velvet)
1027 Koruthaialos sindu sindu
1028 Lotongus avesta
1029 Lotongus calathus calathus
1030 Matapa aria (Common Redeye)
1031 Matapa cresta (Fringed Redeye)
1032 Matapa deprivata
1033 Matapa druna
1034 Matapa sasivarna
1035 Notocrypta clavata clavata
1036 Notocrypta clavata theba
1037 Notocrypta curvifascia corinda
1038 Notocrypta feisthamelii alysos (Spotted Demon)
1039 Notocrypta paralysos asawa
1040 Notocrypta paralysos varians (Banded Demon)
1041 Notocrypta pria
1042 Notocrypta quadrata
1043 Oerane microthyrus neaera
1044 Oriens gola pseudolus (Common Dartlet)
1045 Oriens goloides
1046 Oriens paragola
1047 Parnara apostata
1048 Parnara bada bada
1049 Parnara ganga
1050 Pelopidas agna agna (Little Branded Swift)
1051 Pelopidas assamensis (Great Swift)
1052 Pelopidas conjunctus conjunctus (Conjoined Swift)
1053 Pelopidas flavus
1054 Pelopidas mathias mathias (Small Branded Swift)
1055 Pemara pugnans (Pugnacious Lancer)
1056 Pirdana distanti distanti
1057 Pirdana hyela rudolphii
1058 Pithauria marsena
1059 Pithauria murdava
1060 Pithauria stramineipennis
1061 Plastingia naga (Chequered Lancer)
1062 Plastingia pellonia (Yellow Chequered Lancer)
1063 Polytremis discrete discrete
1064 Polytremis eltola corbeti (Yellow-Spot Swift)
1065 Polytremis lubricans lubricans (Contiguous Swift)
1066 Polytremis minuta
1067 Potanthus chloe
1068 Potanthus confucius dushta
1069 Potanthus flavus alcon
1070 Potanthus ganda ganda
1071 Potanthus juno juno
1072 Potanthus lydia fraseri
1073 Potanthus mingo ajax
1074 Potanthus omaha omaha (Lesser Dart)
1075 Potanthus pamela
1076 Potanthus pava pava
1077 Potanthus rectifasciatus
1078 Potanthus serina
1079 Potanthus trachala tytleri
1080 Pseudokerana fulgur (Orange Banded Lancer)
1081 Psolos fuligo fuligo (Coon)
1082 Pyroneura agnesia
1083 Pyroneura aurantiaca montivaga
1084 Pyroneura derna
1085 Pyroneura flavia fruhstorferi
1086 Pyroneura helena
1087 Pyroneura klanga
1088 Pyroneura latoia latoia (Yellow Vein Lancer)
1089 Pyroneura natuna
1090 Pyroneura niasana burmana
1091 Pyroneura perakana perakana
1092 Quedara monteithi monteithi
1093 Quedara singularis
1094 Salanoemia fuscicornis
1095 Salanoemia sala
1096 Salanoemia similis
1097 Salanoemia tavoyana
1098 Scobura isota
1099 Scobura phiditia
1100 Scobura woolletti
1101 Stimula swinhoei near subsp. disca
1102 Suada swerga suava
1103 Suastus everyx everyx
1104 Suastus gremius gremius (Palm Bob)
1105 Suastus minufus aditia
1106 Suastus minutus flemingi (Small-Spot Palm Bob)
1107 Taractrocera aliena aliena
1108 Taractrocera archias quinta
1109 Taractrocera ardonia lamia
1110 Taractrocera ziclea zenia
1111 Telicota augias augias (Palm Dart)
1112 Telicota bambusae bambusae
1113 Telicota besta bina (Besta Palm Dart)
1114 Telicota colon stinga (Pale Palm Dart)
1115 Telicota hilda
1116 Telicota linna
1117 Telicota ohara jix
1118 Udaspes folus (Grass Demon)
1119 Unkana ambasa batara (Hoary Palmer)
1120 Unkana mytheca mytheca
1121 Xanthoneura corissa indrasana
1122 Zela cowani
1123 Zela elioti
1124 Zela excellens
1125 Zela onara solex
1126 Zela smaragdina
1127 Zela zenon
1128 Zela zero
1129 Zela zeus optima
1130 Zela zeus zeus
1131 Zographetus doxus
1132 Zographetus kutu
1133 Zographetus ogygia ogygia
1134 Zographetus ogygioides
1135 Zographetus rama (The Small Flitter)
1136 Zographetus satwa (Purple and Gold Flitter)
1137 Capita hainana subsp.
1138 Capita phanaeus ferrea
1139 Capita pieridoides sofa
1140 Celaenorrhinus asmara asmara
1141 Celaenorrhinus aurivittatus cameroni (Dark Yellow-banded flat)
1142 Celaenorrhinus ficulnea queda
1143 Celaenorrhinus inaequalis irene
1144 Celaenorrhinus ladana
1145 Celaenorrhinus leucocera (Common Spotted Flat)
1146 Celaenorrhinus nigricans nigricans
1147 Celaenorrhinus pahangensis
1148 Celaenorrhinus putra sanda
1149 Chamunda chamunda
1150 Coladenia agni subsp.
1151 Coladenia agnioides
1152 Coladenia laxmi sobrina
1153 Coladenia palawana
1154 Darpa ptena dealbata
1155 Darpa striata striata
1156 Gerosis limax dirae (Black and White Flat)
1157 Gerosis phisara phisara (White-banded Flat)
1158 Gerosis sinica minima
1159 Gerosis tristis
1160 Mooreana trichoneura trichoneura
1161 Odina hieroglyphica ortina (Hieroglyphic Flat)
1162 Odontoptilum angulatum angulatum (Chestnut Angle)
1163 Odontoptilum pygela pygela (The Banded Angle)
1164 Pintara pinwilli pinwilli
1165 Pseudocoladenia dan dhyana (Fulvous Pied Flat)
1166 Sarangesa dasahara dasahara
1167 Satarupa gopala malaya
1168 Seseria affinis kirmana
1169 Tagiades calligana
1170 Tagiades cohaerens cinda
1171 Tagiades gana gana (Large Snow Flat)
1172 Tagiades japetus atticus (Common Snow Flat)
1173 Tagiades lavatus
1174 Tagiades litigiosus litigiosus
1175 Tagiades menaka manis (Dark Edged Snow Flat)
1176 Tagiades parra naxos
1177 Tagiades toba toba
1178 Tagiades ultra
1179 Tagiades waterstradti talanga
1180 Tapena thwaitesi bornea (Black Angle)