Tuesday, December 15, 2015

Early stage of Detached Dart (Potanthus trachala)

Butterfly description:
The species is moderately common in Singapore and not rare in Peninsula Malaysia, it can be found at all usual elevations, in both primary and secondary forest. Range from India to China and Sundaland. The adult have been observed to visit flowers and sunbathing.

Further reading: Identification of Potanthus trachala

Host plant description:
Imperata cylindrica, Lalang (Singapore)
Ischaemum barbatum (HK)
Neyraudia reynaudiana (HK)
Panicum maximum (HK)

Early stage description:
The eggs of Potanthus trachala are laid singly on the underside of the grass blade of the host plant. The dome-shaped egg is creamy white.The early stage of the Potanthus trachala complete in 6th instar.
Egg of P. trachala (day 1).

Maturing egg of P. trachala with head capsule visible through the 
egg shell (day 3)

It takes 3 - 4 days for the egg to hatch. After emergence, the caterpillar will devour the rest of the egg shell. The newly emerged caterpillar is creamy white with black head capsule, and a black line right behind the capsule on the prothorax. There're also numerous long and tiny hair (setae) at the posterior end of the body.
Caterpillar of P. trachala hatching sequence (day 4).

The body color of the 1st instar larva turns to greenish after a few feeding sessions on the grass blade.  The instar lasts about 5 days.
1st instar larva of P. trachala
1st instar larva of P. trachala, moulting to 2nd instar
The 2nd instar larva and subsequent instar larva continue to have the clear black line on prothorax, the black line continue to presents on the subsequents instar, slightly faded on 6th instar but clearly visible. The anal plate of the 2nd instar larva is black. The instar lasts about 5 days.

2nd instar larva of P. trachala
The 3rd instar larva resembles the 2nd instar larva, with black head capsule, black line behind the head capsule, and black marking on the anal plate. The instar lasts about 4-7 days.
3rd instar larva of P. trachala

The 4th instar larva has yellowish-green coloration on body. The instar takes about 6 - 8 days to complete.
4th instar larva of P. trachala

Internal structure of the leaf shelter of 5th instar larva
In the 5th instar, the head capsule is dominated by large and broad yellowish white lateral patches. This instar takes about 5 - 7 days to complete.
2 views of the 5th instar larva of P. trachala

5th instar larva of P. trachala, moulting to 6th instar
The 6th instar larva resembles the 5th instar larva, with the black line on prothorax slightly faded but visible. This instar takes about 11-13 days to reach the stage of pre-pupa. The body length reached 30 mm.
2 views of the 6th instar larva of P. trachala

Head capsule view of 5th and 6th instar larva

Anal plate of 6th instar larva
Towards the end of the 6th instar, the body coloration of the caterpillar changes to yellowish brown and shortens. Pupation takes place in the tight leaf shelter.

2 views of the leaf shelter
Similar to other in the genus, pupa of Potanthus trachala is without cremaster attachment or any silk girdle to secure itself to. White substance are found within the leaf shelter. The pupa is mainly greenish yellow. Length of pupae : 16mm.
Partial view of pupa after opening the leaf shelter

Two views of the pupa

Front-view of the pupa

Tail-part of the pupa
2 days before eclosion, abdomen of pupa start to turn darker, together with the eyes and thorax areas.

3 views of semi pupa of Potanthus trachala (2 days before eclosion)
1 day before eclosion, the head and thorax of pupa become darken and semi transparent. Upper-side wings marking briefly visible.

2 views of mature pupa (1 day before eclosion)

A newly emerged female Potanthus trachala

Note: 3 eggs collected from the same female, hatched into 2 female and 1 male. Each larva mature at different speed and reached pupation stage 4 days apart. 1 female pupated on days 41, 1 male pupated on days 44, the last female pupated on days 45. From egg to adult took 51 - 53 days.

All larvae are kept in similar condition (room temperature and humidity).

* A Photographic Monograph on Hong Kong Butterflies (vol 4). HKLS.
* M. J. Bascombe, G. Johnston & F. S. Bascombe, 1999. The Butterflies of Hong Kong.
* Corbet, A. S. & H. M. Pendlebury, 1992. The Butterflies of the Malay Peninsula. 4th Edition (Revised by J. N. Eliot).

Sunday, November 8, 2015

Partial life history of the White Royal (Pratapa deva relata)

The White Royal, Pratapa deva relata (Distant) belongs to the Lycaeninae subfamily and family Lycaenidae. The species is found from  Sri Lanka, India, east to Myanmar, Thailand, Yunnan, Guangdong, Fujian, Philippines, Peninsular Malaysia, Java and Borneo (Corbet & Pendlebury, 1992; M. J. Bascombe, G. Johnston & G. S. Bascombe, 1999). Sub-species P. deva devula is known from Hong Kong and Fuzhou.

The White Royal, Pratapa deva relata is rare in Singapore, it's the sole representative of the genus Pratapa (Moore). The butterfly were photographed (re-discovered) in year 2008 by Richard Ong at Telok Blangah Hill Park. The species were subsequently introduced to a location at Upper Selatar Reservoir where the host plants are abundant with success.

The male of the species has brand (black spot) on the upperside hindwing with black hairs arising from the forewing dorsum area. Both gender has a broad dark border and black tornal lobe crowned with orange on upperside hindwing. On underside of hindwing, there is a black tornal lobe and a black spot at the tornal area, both crowned with orange.

The White Royal, Pratapa deva relata (female), resting on a leaf

Host plant description:
In India, recorded host plant is Loranthus tomentosa
In Hong Kong, recorded host plant is Scurrula parasitica
In Malaysia and Singapore, recorded host plant is Scurrula ferruginea (Rusty-leaf Misletoe)

All the host plants species are parasitic plant commonly known as Mistletoes (Loranthaceae). Further reading: Mistletoes of Singapore.

Host plant: Scurrula ferruginea
Aa 3rd instar caterpillar found on the leaf above

Host plant: Scurrula ferruginea

Early Stage Description:
Two larvae were collected at Negeri Sembilan on Scurrula ferruginea, at a village next to forest reserve. They are successfully rearing to metamorphosis, accompanied by photographic records as following:

3rd and 4th instar larvae

4th instar lavae

4th instar larvae

4th instar larva (side view)

4th instar larva (posterior view)

Frass produced by 2 lavae for 15 hours

Larva in pre-pupa position

Larva in pre pupa position

Pupa of the White Royal on the host plant in natural habitat

Close-up view of the pupa

Pupa of the White Royal (side view)

Pupa of the White Royal (back view)
Both butterflies successfully emerged from pupal case after 7 days
Mature White Royal pupa of female (left) and male (right)

Time-lapse video of White Royal emerging form pupa

The White Royal (male)

The White Royal (upperside)

Typical back view of butterfly from Lycanidae family, mimic another
head view from the rear

  • Corbet, A. S. & H. M. Pendlebury, 1992. The Butterflies of the Malay Peninsula. 4th Edition (Revised by J. N. Eliot).
  • M. J. Bascombe, G. Johnston & F. S. Bascombe, 1999. The Butterflies of Hong Kong.

Index of The Life Histories of Asian Butterflies Vol. 2 by Igarashi & Fukuda

1Ornithoptera paradisea ゴクラクトリバネアゲハ
2Ornithoptera meridionalis ヒレオトリバネアゲハ
3Ornithoptera tithonus チトヌストリバネアゲハ
4Ornithoptera chimaera キマエラトリバネアゲハ
5Ornithoptera goliath ゴライアストリバネアゲハ
6Ornithoptera rothschildi ロスチャイルドトリバネアゲハ
7Ornithoptera victoriae ビクトリアトリバネアゲハ
8Ornithoptera aesacus オビトリバネアゲハ
9Ornithoptera croesus ヒイロトリバネアゲハ
10Trogonoptera trojana パラワントリバネアゲハ
11Troides prattorum ブルキシタアゲハ
12Troides haliphron ヘリブトキシタアゲハ
13Troides vandepolli ヴァンデポリキシタアゲハ
14Troides minos ミノスキシタアゲハ
15Troides darsius セイロンキシタアゲハ
16Pachliopta atropos パラワンベニモンアゲハ
17Byasa laos ラオスジャコウアゲハ
18Atrophaneura priapus キイロハゲタカアゲハ
19Menelaides ascalaphus セレベスアゲハ
20Menelaides lowi パラワンアゲハ
21Menelaides rumanzovia アカネアゲハ
22Menelaides polymnestor テンジクアゲハ
23Menelaides gambrisius アンボンアゲハ
24Menelaides thaiwanus ワタナベアゲハ
25Menelaides aegeus メスアカモンキアゲハ
26Menelaides castor オナシモンキアゲハ
27Papilio demoleus オナシアゲハ
28Menelaides nephelus タイワンモンキアゲハ
29Menelaides sataspes セレベスモンキアゲハ
30Menelaides iswaroides ニセモンキアゲハ
31Menelaides helenus モンキアゲハ
32Menelaides amynthor ヒメモンキアゲハ
33Menelaides ambrax シロモンアゲハ
34Achillides dialis タイワンカラスアゲハ
35Achillides bianor カラスアゲハ
36Achillides polyctor クジャクアゲハ
37Achillides hoppo ホッポアゲハ
38Achillides arcturus オオクジャクアゲハ
39Achillides krishna タカネクジャクアゲハ
40Achillides chikae ルソンカラスアゲハ
41Achillides peranthus アオネアゲハ
42Achillides lorquinianus ヘリボシアオネアゲハ
43Achillides montrouzieri ヒメオオルリアゲハ
44Achillides ulysses オオルリアゲハ
45Achillides blumei オオルリオビアゲハ
46Achillides daedalus フィリピンオビクジャクアゲハ
47Achillides palinurus オビクジャクアゲハ
48Achillides karna カルナルリモンアゲハ
49Achillides paris ルリモンアゲハ
50Achillides fuscus ネッタイモンキアゲハ
51Paranticopsis megarus ヒメマダラタイマイ
52Pazala eurous アサクラアゲハ
53Pazala timur モクセイアゲハ
54Pathysa nomius カザリタイマイ
55Pathysa antiphates オナガタイマイ
56Graphium eurypylus オオミカドアゲハ
57Graphium macfarlanei ヨシノタイマイ
58Graphium agamemnon コモンタイマイ
59Graphium milon オオアオスジアゲハ
60Graphium cloanthus タイワンタイマイ
61Graphium codrus オナガアオスジアゲハ
62Lamproptera meges アオスソビキアゲハ
63Lamproptera curius シロスソビキアゲハ
64Meandrusa payeni カギバアゲハ
65Teinopalpus imperialis テングアゲハ

66Dercas verhuelli タイリクトガリキチョウ
67Gonepteryx amintha タイワンヤマキチョウ
68Gandaca harina ムモンキチョウ
69Eurema celebensis セレベスキチョウ
70Eurema andersoni ウスイロキチョウ
71Eurema salilata サリラタキチョウ
72Eurema candida パプアキチョウ
73Eurema novapallida キミドリキチョウ
74Eurema lacteola アオジロキチョウ
75Eurema blanda タイワンキチョウ
76Eurema alitha エサキキチョウ
77Eurema hecabe キチョウ
78Pareronia valeria アサギシロチョウ
79Pareronia tritaea オオアサギシロチョウ
80Pareronia boebera フィリピンアサギシロチョウ
81Cepora nadina ウスムラサキシロチョウ
82Delias oraia オライアカザリシロチョウ
83Delias belisama ベリサマカザリシロチョウ
84Leptosia nina クロテンシロチョウ
85Leptosia lignea パルクロテンシロチョウ
86Aporia agathon タカムクシロチョウ
87Aporia genestieri タカサゴミヤマシロチョウ
88Pieris brassicae オオモンシロチョウ
89Talbotia naganum カルミモンシロチョウ
90Appias paulina ナミエシロチョウ
91Appias ithome ベニオビシロチョウ
92Appias albina カワカミシロチョウ

93Parantica aglea ヒメコモンアサギマダラ
94Parantica swinhoei タイワンアサギマダラ
95Parantica sita アサギマダラ
96Parantica pedonga シッキムアサギマダラ
97Parantica agleoides トラフマダラ
98Parantica cleona キイロマダラ
99Ideopsis vitrea ビトレアヒメマダラ
100Ideopsis juventa ユベンタヒメマダラ
101Euploea midamus ビロードマダラ
102Euploea algea ウスグロマダラ
103Euploea eleusina チビムラサキマダラ
104Euploea eurianassa シロヘリムラサキマダラ
105Euploea core ガランピマダラ
106Euploea alcathoe クロムラサキマダラ
107Euploea corinna コリンナルリマダラ
108Euploea camaralzeman シロオビルリマダラ
109Idea blanchardii ウスグロオオゴマダラ
110Danaus genutia スジグロカバマダラ

111Acrophtalmia leuce セレベスイワヒバジャノメ
112Ragadia crisilda タイリクシマジャノメ
113Hypocysta aroa ギンブチジャノメ
114Ypthima sempera センペラウラナミジャノメ
115Ypthima savara タケウラナミジャノメ
116Erites angularis キイロウスバジャノメ
117Lohora ophthalmica パルマルバコジャノメ
118Mycalesis janardana ウラナミコジャノメ
119Mycalesis terminus マエアカコジャノメ
120Mycalesis phidon ウラアカコジャノメ
121Mycalesis horsfieldi キレバヒトツメジャノメ
122Mycalesis itys セレベスコジャノメ
123Mycalesis orseis アイイロコジャノメ
124Melanargia montana オオシロジャノメ
125Elymnias panthera オジロマネシヒカゲ
126Elymnias dara シロオビマネシヒカゲ
127Melanitis zitenius キオビコノマチョウ
128Melanitis constantia オスアカコノマチョウ
129Neope bremeri タイワンキマダラヒカゲ
130Neope armandii シロキマダラヒカゲ
131Neope muirheadi ウラキマダラヒカゲ
132Xanthotaenia busiris キオビジャノメ
133Lethe vindhya ラクサオクロヒカゲ

134Faunis aerope ウスイロマルバネワモン
135Faunis menado セレベスマルバネワモン
136Faunis stomphax パラワンマルバネワモン
137Dischophora sondaica トガリワモン
138Taenaris catops シロメダマワモン
139Taenaris artemis ナカグロメダマワモン
140Stichophthalma howqua ワモンチョウ
141Thaumantis odana ルリモンワモン

142Calinaga buddha クビワチョウ
143Acraea violae ベニホソチョウ
144Acraea issoria ホソチョウ
145Terinos clarissa シリアカビロードタテハ
146Cirrochroa regina ヘリグロタテハ
147Cirrochroa tyche ウスイロタテハ
148Cethosia myrina セレベスハレギチョウ
149Cethosia penthesilea スンダハレギチョウ
150Hypolimnas deois ジャノメムラサキ
151Yoma sabina キオビコノハ
152Mynes geoffroyi ヒメシロタテハ
153Cyrestis paulinus ウスグロイシガケチョウ
154Cyrestis cassander ヘリグロイシガケチョウ
155Cyrestis cocles マルバネイシガケチョウ
156Cyrestis themire テミレイシガケチョウ
157Cyrestis thyodamas イシガケチョウ
158Pseudergolis avesta チャイロスミナガシ
159Pseudergolis wedah カバイロスミナガシ
160Pantoporia consimilis キンイチモンジ
161Lasippa neriphus セレベスヒメミスジ
162Limenitis sulpitia タイワンホシミスジ
163Limenitis sydyi ヒロオビイチモンジ
164Limenitis doerriesi クロボシイチモンジ
165Sumalia dudu ムラサキイチモンジ
166Moduza procris エビイロイチモンジ
167Moduza urdaneta フィリピンイチモンジ
168Lebadea martha アカイチモンジ
169Bhagadatta austenia ヒカゲタテハ
170Parthenos sylvia トラフタテハ
171Athyma fortuna ララサンミスジ
172Athyma asura ナカグロミスジ
173Athyma recurva シセンミスジ
174Athyma kanwa カンワミスジ
175Athyma venata ヒメイチモンジ
176Athyma nefte メスグロミスジ
177Athyma perius シロミスジ
178Athyma libnites シロモンアカミスジ
179Athyma cama タイワンイチモンジ
180Athyma speciosa パラワンイチモンジ
181Athyma selenophora ヤエヤマイチモンジ
182Tarattia gutama キスジイチモンジ
183Abrota ganga オスアカミスジ
184Lexias pardalis パルダリスオオイナズマ
185Euthaliopsis aetion モンキイナズマ
186Euthalia anosia コケムシイナズマ
187Mimathyma schrenckii シロモンコムラサキ
188Mimathyma ambica キララコムラサキ
189Mimathyma nycteis シロスジコムラサキ
190Mimathyma chevana ミスジコムラサキ
191Chitoria chrysolora タイワンコムラサキ
192Chitoria ulupi シラギコムラサキ
193Chitoria fasciola キオビコムラサキ
194Chitoria cooperi クーパーコムラサキ
195Chitoria sordida ソルディダコムラサキ
196Chitoria modesta モデスタコムラサキ
197Eulaceura osteria マレーコムラサキ
198Helcyra superba シロタテハ
199Helcyra plesseni アサクラコムラサキ
200Helcyra subalba ウラギンコムラサキ
201Rohana albescens ヒョウマダラ
202Rohana parisatis チビコムラサキ
203Herona marathus アカスジコムラサキ
204Herona sumatrana ウスイロコムラサキ
205Apatura laverna ウンナンコムラサキ
206Apatura iris チョウセンコムラサキ
207Apatura ilia タイリクコムラサキ
208Thaleropis ionia チビマドタテハ
209Dilipa fenestra マドタテハ
210Lelecella limenitoides イチモンジマドタテハ
211Sephisa chandra キゴマダラ
212Sephisa princeps カバイロゴマダラ
213Hestinalis nama カバシタゴマダラ
214Euripus nyctelius エグリゴマダラ
215Euripus consimilis アカネゴマダラ
216Sasakia charonda オオムラサキ
217Sasakia funebris クロオオムラサキ
218Prothoe australis モンキヤイロタテハ
219Charaxes bupalus シロオビチャイロフタオ
220Charaxes harmodius ヘリボシチャイロフタオ

221Libythea celtis テングチョウ
222Libythea geoffroyi ムラサキテングチョウ

223Abisara savitri オナガシジミタテハ
224Abisara echerius ヒョットコシジミタテハ
225Abisara saturata エビイロヒョットコ
226Abisara kausambi シロオビヒョットコ
227Abisara burnii アリサンシジミタテハ
228Abisara fylla キオビシジミタテハ
229Zemeros flegyas ホシシジミタテハ
230Dodona deodata トラフシジミタテハ
231Dodona dipoea キコモンシジミタテハ
232Dodona eugenes シジミタテハ

233Taraka hamada ゴイシシジミ
234Spalgis epius ジンメンヨウシジミ
235Allotinus major ヤドリギアシナガシジミ
236Allotinus unicolor ムモンアシナガシジミ
237Miletus biggsii シロオビアシナガシジミ
238Philiris harterti ナナレイシジミ
239Liphyra brassolis アリノスシジミ
240Phengaris atroguttata ウスアオゴマダラシジミ
241Phengaris daitozana シロゴマダラシジミ
242Tongeia hainani タイワンクロツバメシジミ
243Tongeia filicaudis ムシャクロツバメシジミ
244Shijimia moorei ゴイシツバメシジミ
245Pithecops phoenix オオクロボシシジミ
246Pithecops dionisius パプアクロボシシジミ
247Pithecops corvus リュウキュウウラボシシジミ
248Freyeria putli タイワンヒメシジミ
249Chilades pandava ヒメソテツシジミ
250Chilades lajus コウシュンルリシジミ
251Zizula hylax ホリイコシジミ
252Acytolepis puspa タイワンルリシジミ
253Celastrina oreas アリサンルリシジミ
254Udara dilecta タッパンルリシジミ
255Jamides celeno コシロウラナミシジミ
256Jamides malaccanus マラッカウラナミシジミ
257Jamides nemophilus ヒロオビウラナミシジミ
258Danis phroso ルリカザリシジミ
259Castalius rosimon ナツメシジミ
260Caleta roxus キオビシジミ
261Yasoda androconifera サンキライオナガシジミ
262Hypolycaena danis ランシジミ
263Hypolycaena sipylus オナガフタオシジミ
264Hypolycaena thecloides チゴザサシジミ
265Hypolycaena erylus ルリオナガフタオシジミ
266Thamala marciana アカオニシジミ
267Drupadia theda テダセキレイシジミ
268Araotes lapithis ウラゴマルリツバメ
269Horaga onyx ミツオシジミ
270Horaga albimacula ヒメミツオシジミ
271Sinthusa chandrana クヤニヤシジミ
272Virachola rapaloides ウラヒロオビシジミ
273Spindasis lohita タイワンフタオツバメ
274Spindasis kuyaniana ヒメフタオツバメ
275Spindasis takanonis キマダラルリツバメ
276Spindasis seliga オオフタオツバメ
277Remelana jangala ウラキンルリツバメ
278Tajuria maculata クロボシツバメ
279Tajuria japyx アオネツバメ
280Tajuria mantra カラスツバメ
281Dacalana anysis アバタルリツバメ
282Surendra vivarna アカシアシジミ
283Surendra samina セレベスアカシアシジミ
284Surendra quercetorum オオアカシアシジミ
285Zinaspa todara ルリアカシアシジミ
286Amblopala avidiena ワイモンルリシジミ
287Amblypodia anita アニタコノハシジミ
288Mahathala ameria エグリシジミ
289Arhopala birmana アサクラシジミ
290Arhopala asopia クワムラサキシジミ
291Arhopala pseudocentaurus オオムラサキツバメ
292Arhopala hellenore ミドリムラサキツバメ
293Arhopala khamti カムチムラサキツバメ
294Flos diardi ミヤマニセムラサキツバメ
295Flos asoka アソカニセムラサキツバメ
296Flos fulgida フルギダニセムラサキツバメ
297Neomyrina nivea ハゴロモシジミ
298Thaduka multicaudata ルリイロミツオシジミ
299Iraota timoleon イチジクシジミ
300Iraota distanti ヒメイチジクシジミ
301Chaetoprocta odata クルミシジミ
302Fixsenia formosana タイワンカラスシジミ
303Fixsenia eximia ムシャカラスシジミ
304Fixsenia watarii ワタリカラスシジミ
305Fixsenia tanakai タナカカラスシジミ
306Fixsenia austrina ウラジロカラスシジミ
307Thecla betulae チョウセンメスアカシジミ
308Sibataniozephyrus kuafui タニカドミドリシジミ
309Curetis saronis マラヤウラギンシジミ

310Bibasis iluska ヘリアカビロードセセリ
311Bibasis gomata ウラスジビロードセセリ
312Bibasis tuckeri カワセミビロードセセリ
313Bibasis harisa メスアオビロードセセリ
314Bibasis jaina トビイロセセリ
315Bibasis sena ウラオビビロードセセリ
316Hasora taminatus タイワンビロードセセリ
317Hasora chromus オキナワビロードセセリ
318Hasora badra テツイロビロードセセリ
319Hasora schoenherr キオビビロードセセリ
320Hasora anura オナシビロードセセリ
321Lobocla bifasciata マエキセセリ
322Celaenorrhinus ruficornis クロキコモンセセリ
323Celaenorrhinus dhanada ウラキコモンセセリ
324Celaenorrhinus aurivittatus アカオビキコモンセセリ
325Celaenorrhinus asmara カワベリキコモンセセリ
326Celaenorrhinus leucocera シッキムキコモンセセリ
327Celaenorrhinus morena ナガヒルキコモンセセリ
328Charmion ficulnea ギンモンセセリ
329Sarangesa dasahara キノカワセセリ
330Darpa pteria オジロセセリ
331Darpa striata ケナガセセリ
332Coladenia agnioides ラオスマダラセセリ
333Coladenia palawana ミノムシセセリ
334Pseudocoladenia dan チャコモンセセリ
335Mooreana triconeura キシタセセリ
336Caprona agama ウラゴマセセリ
337Seseria sambara ラオスクスノキセセリ
338Seseria affinis クスノキセセリ
339Seseria formosana オオクロボシセセリ
340Satarupa formosibia タイワンオオシロシタセセリ
341Satarupa gopala オオシロシタセセリ
342Satarupa monbeigi シセンオオシロシタセセリ
343Satarupa nymphalis コンゴウセセリ
344Ancistroides nigrita ムモンクロセセリ
345Notocrypta clavata トガリクロセセリ
346Ancistroides armatus オオベニモンセセリ
347Koruthaialos sindu ベニモンセセリ
348Psolos fuligo オハグロセセリ
349Eetion elia ツルギセセリ
350Borbo sp. シセンタケセセリ
351Zographetus abima セレベスコセセリ
352Zographetus rama パラワンコセセリ
353Zographetus doxus マラヤコセセリ
354Ampittia virgata ホソバキボシセセリ
355Halpe ormenes ウラオビセセリ
356Halpe flava スズメセセリ
357Parnara apostata ミナミイチモンジセセリ
358Suastus gremius クロボシセセリ
359Plastingia naga スダレセセリ
360Plastingia tessellata オオスダレセセリ
361Iambrix salsala ホシゾラセセリ
362Pithauria marsena ケブカセセリ
363Polytremis lubricans キモンチャバネセセリ
364Polytremis discreta シセンチャバネセセリ
365Aeromachus jhora ボルネオホシチャバネセセリ
366Pelopidas conjuncta タイワンオオチャバネセセリ
367Potanthus ganda インドキマダラセセリ
368Potanthus confucius タイワンキマダラセセリ
369Ochlodes bouddha シルビアキマダラセセリ
370Cephrenes acalle ヤシアカセセリ
371Telicota colon ネッタイアカセセリ
372Telicota ternatensis テルナテアカセセリ
373Telicota hilda オオアカセセリ
374Telicota ohara タケアカセセリ
375Gangara thyrsis シラガムシセセリ
376Gangara lebadea コウモリセセリ
377Acerbas martini ハラジロセセリ
378Erionota thrax トガリバナナセセリ
379Erionota torus バナナセセリ
380Erionota grandis オオシュロセセリ

Data source: http://www.asahi-net.or.jp/~EY4Y-TKNM/igarashi/asia2-cont.html

Index of The Life Histories of Asian Butterflies Vol. 1 by Igarashi & Fukuda

1 Luehdorfia japonica
2 Luehdorfia chinensis
3 Luehdorfia puziloi
4 Luehdorfia longicaudata
5 Bhutanitis lidderdalii
6 Parnalius cerisy
7 Archon apollinus
8 Hypremnestra helios
9 Sericinus montela
10 Cressida cressida
11 Pachliopta aristolochiae
12 Pachliopta polydorus
13 Pachliopta polyphontes
14 Pachliopta neptunus
15 Pachliopta coon
16 Byasa febanus
17 Byasa dasarada
18 Byasa polyeuctes
19 Atrophaneura horishana
20 Atrophaneura aidoneus
21 Atrophaneura semperi
22 Atrophaneura varuna
23 Atrophaneura nox
24 Atrophaneura sycorax
25 Atrophaneura hageni
26 Atrophaneura kuehni
27 Troides aeacus
28 Troides rhadamantus
29 Troides magellanus
30 Troides amphrysus
31 Troides cuneifera
32 Troides miranda
33 Troides andromache
34 Troides helena
35 Troides oblongomaculatus
36 Troides hypolitus
37 Trogonoptera brookiana
38 Ornithoptera alexandrae
39 Ornithoptera priamus
40 Chilasa slateri
41 Chilasa agestor
42 Chilasa clytia
43 Chilasa epycides
44 Chilasa anactus
45 Chilasa laglaizei
46 Agehana maraho
47 Papilio gigon
48 Euchenor euchenor
49 Papilio demolion

50 Prioneris thestylis
51 Hebomoia glaucippe
52 Catopsilia pyranthe
53 Catopsilia scylla
54 Catopsilia pomona
55 Appias lyncida
56 Appias olferna
57 Belenois java
58 Ixias pyrene
59 Delias pasithoe
60 Delias henningia
61 Delias belladonna
62 Delias descombesi
63 Delias hyparete
64 Delias eucharis
65 Delias lativitta
66 Delias wilemani
67 Cepora nerissa
68 Cepora abnormis
69 Cepora aspasia

70 Anosia chrysippus
71 Danaus plexippus
72 Idea lynceus
73 Idea leuconoe
74 Ideopsis gaura
75 Anosia melanippus
76 Parantica aspasia
77 Tellervo zoilus
78 Parantica vitrina
79 Parantica luzonensis
80 Euploea mulciber
81 Euploea eunice
82 Euploea tulliolus
83 Euploea camaralzeman
84 Euploea phaenareta

85 Elymnias hypermnestra
86 Elymnias nesaea
87 Elymnias casiphone
88 Elymnias melias
89 Elymnias esaca
90 Zethera pimplea
91 Neorina lowii
92 Penthema formosanum
93 Lethe europa
94 Lethe rohria
95 Lethe verma
96 Lethe insana
97 Lethe dura
98 Lethe confusa
99 Lethe chandica
100 Lethe christophi
101 Ptychandra lorquinii
102 Orsotriaena medus
103 Mycalesis igoleta
104 Mycalesis sangaica
105 Mycalesis tagala
106 Mycalesis perseus
107 Mycalesis anaxioides
108 Mycalesis ita
109 Mycalesis maianeas
110 Acrophtalmia artemis
111 Ragadia luzonia
112 Ypthima praenubila
113 Ypthima motschulskyi
114 Ypthima formosana
115 Ypthima conjuncta
116 Ypthima esakii
117 Ypthima pandocus
118 Ypthima risompae
119 Ypthima stellera
120 Ypthima loryma
121 Ypthima sakra
122 Ypthima huebneri
123 Ypthima okurai
124 Palaeonympha opalina
125 Callerebia scanda

126 Zeuxidia aurelius
127 Zeuxidia amethystus
128 Zeuxidia doubledayi
129 Thauria aliris
130 Amathusia phidippus
131 Faunis phaon
132 Faunis canens
133 Discophora timora

134 Ariadne ariadne
135 Ariadne merione
136 Ariadne isaeus
137 Phalanta phalantha
138 Cupha erymanthis
139 Phalanta alcippe
140 Vagrans egista
141 Terinos terpander
142 Cethosia biblis
143 Cethosia hypsea
144 Cethosia chrysippe
145 Vindula erota
146 vindula dejone
147 Cirrochroa aoris
148 Symbrenthia hippoclus
149 Symbrenthia hypselis
150 Hypolimnas anomala
151 Hypolimnas bolina
152 Junonia iphita
153 Junonia hedonia
154 Junonia atlites
155 Junonia lemonias
156 Junonia almana
157 Junonia orithya
158 Junonia hierta
159 Rhinopalpa polynice
160 Kallima limborgi
161 Kallima inachus
162 Doleschallia bisaltide
163 Doleschallia dascylus
164 Doleschallia noorua
165 Stibochiona nicea
166 Stibochiona schoenbergi
167 Dichorragia ninus
168 Dichorragia nesimachus
169 Amnosia decora
170 Chersonesia risa
171 Chersonesia rahria
172 Cyrestis acilia
173 Cyrestis strigata
174 Neptis hylas
175 Neptis ida
176 Neptis soma
177 Neptis reducta
178 Neptis harita
179 Neptis nata
180 Neptis nemorosa
181 Neptis philyroides
182 Neptis leucoporos
183 Pantoporia columella
184 Neptis brebissonii
185 Neptis praslini
186 Neptis nausicaa
187 Pantoporia hordonia
188 Pantoporia venilia
189 Tanaecia julii
190 Tanaecia iapis
191 Euthalia irrubescens
192 Euthalia lubentina
193 Euthalia adonia
194 Euthalia amanda
195 Euthalia monina
196 Dophla evelina
197 Euthalia aconthea
198 Euthalia phemius
199 Mahaldia formosana
200 Mahaldia thibetana
201 Lexias dirtea
202 Prothoe calydonia
203 Prothoe franck
204 Charaxes bernardus
205 Charaxes affinis
206 Charaxes solon
207 Polyura schreiber
208 Polyura eudamippus
209 Polyura narcaea
210 Polyura jupiter
211 Polyura delphis
212 Polyura athamas
213 Polyura hebe

214 Deudorix epijarbas
215 Artipe eryx
216 Bindahara phocides
217 Eooxylides tharis
218 Cheritra freja
219 Drupadia ravindra
220 Rapala dioetas
221 Rapala manea
222 Rapala nissa
223 Rapala pheretima
224 Loxura atymnus
225 Tajuria cippus
226 Tajuria diaeus
227 Tajuria caerulea
228 Tajuria deudorix
229 Pratapa deva
230 Tajuria illurgis
231 Ancema ctesia
232 Japonica patungkoanui
233 Cordelia comes
234 Ussuriana takarana
235 Ussuriana michaelis
236 Araragi entheum
237 Iratsume orsedice
238 Wagimo sulgeri
239 Teratozephyrus arisanus
240 Leucantigius atayalicus
241 Ravenna nivea
242 Euaspa forsteri
243 Neozephyrus taiwanus
244 Chrysozephyrus esakii
245 Chrysozephyrus disparatus
246 Chrysozephyrus nishikaze
247 Chrysozephyrus kabrua
248 Chrysozephyrus rarasanus
249 Chrysozephyrus hisamatsusanus
250 Chrysozephyrus ataxus
251 Chrysozephyrus mushaellus
252 Chrysozephyrus zoa
253 Arhopala muta
254 Arhopala rama
255 Arhopala japonica
256 Arhopala inornata
257 Arhopala abseus
258 Arhopala thamyras
259 Arhopala alkisthenes
260 Arhopala antimuta
261 Arhopala horsfieldi
262 Heliophorus kiana
263 Heliophorus epicles
264 Lycaena dispar
265 Prosotas dubiosa
266 Jamides alecto
267 Nacaduba kurava
268 Jamides bochus
269 Jamides cunilda
270 Jamides caeruleus
271 Anthene emolus
272 Leptotes plinius
273 Hypochlorosis lorquinii

274 Choaspes benjaminii
275 Choaspes plateni
276 Choaspes subcaudatus
277 Choaspes stigmatus
278 Choaspes hemixanthus
279 Choaspes furcatus
280 Choaspes xanthopogon
281 Badamia exclamationis
282 Pirdana hyela
283 Pirdana distanti
284 Matapa druna
285 Matapa sasivarna
286 Tagiades cohaerens
287 Tagiades trebellius
288 Tagiades ultra
289 Tagiades toba
290 Tagiades parra
291 Tagiades litigiosus
292 Tagiades nestus
293 Tagiades gana
294 Tagiades japetus
295 Gerosis sinica
296 Gerosis limax
297 Abraximorpha davidii
298 Odontoptilum angulatum
299 Lotongus calathus
300 Hidari irava
301 Unkana ambasa
302 Unkana mytheca

Data source: http://www.asahi-net.or.jp/~EY4Y-TKNM/igarashi/igarashi-cont.html

Thursday, October 29, 2015

Early stage of Great Imperial (Jacoona anasuja anasuja)

Note: The early stage was recorded as Grand Imperial previously due to mis-identification.

Wednesday, October 21, 2015

Early stage of Nacaduba kurava (Transparent Six-line Blue)

ID corrected as pointed out by Dr. Seow TL, previously recorded as N. calauria.

Early stage of Colonel

Early stage of the Colonel (Pandita sinope)

Butterfly Description:
Wingspan: 45 - 60 mm

Colonel butterfly is uncommon in Singapore, usually found near to their host plants. Both sexes of the butterfly are looks alike with the brighter orange on male and darker orange on female. The post-discal and sub-marginal band are broader in the female.

The early stage of the Colonel (Pandita sinope) resembled closely to Colour Sergeant (Athyma nefte) and Malay Staff Sergeant (Athyma reta). The three species are likely to be closely related.

The Colonel is the sole representative of the genus.

Host plant Description
Family: Rubiaceae
Uncaria sp.

The host plant is not uncommon and found in several locations in the Central Catchment as well as some well wooded wasteland and parks.

Host plant: Uncaria sp.
Host plant with hook like structure between the leaves

Early stages Description:
Eggs of Colonel are usually laid singly on the tip of the host plant leaf. The entire early stage from egg to adult took about 28 days to complete.

Photo showing egg in live size view (top), close-up view (bottom left), and super close-up (bottom middle and right)

3rd instar larva, frass chain observed at the side of the leaf, where the larva usually rested. The larva head capsule even showing greenish substance, probably the frass sticked to the capsule when the larva constructing the frass chain.
3rd instar larva

4th instar larva

Early 5th instar larva
front view of the larva head capsule

5th instar larva - dorsal view

5th instar larva - side view and head capsule view

Mature 5th instar larva before pupation stage

Larva in pre-pupation stage

3 view of the Colonel pupa

2 view of the Colonel pupa, 1 day before emerging

2 view of the Colonel pupa, hour before emerging

Further reading:

  • The Butterflies of The Malay Peninsula, A.S. Corbet and H.M. Pendlebury, 4th Edition, Malayan Nature Society.
  • Butterflies of Thailand, Pisuth Ek-Amnuay, 1st Edition, 2006