Monday, September 27, 2010

Sunday, September 26, 2010

Why we need a new Singapore Butterflies Observation Checklist?

There're a couple of Singapore Butterflies Checklists available on internet today, mostly maintained by old time butterflies collectors, either with old sighting records, or are not updated.

The problem of such checklists is that, it's maintained with "secrecy", the additional of new or removal of old butterfly species was made unclear, not open & to certain extend, individual likeness.

Butterfly species such as Delias pasithoe parthenope (Red-Base Jezebel), is still kept in most of the checklist, while in actual fact, the butterflies had not been seen for at least the past donkey years. Photos used in such checklists were taken in the neighboring country, and posted in the local checklist.

Same for Iraota distanti distanti, also not sighted for long, and the photo illustrated in local website, is the individual captured by the butterflies collector, pinched on the body to make it immobile, and appear standing in weird & weak position.

Species such as Hebomoia glaucippe aturia (Great Orange Tip), was sighted only once in the recent year but also included in the checklist. A simple notes of such sighting will help to public to understand it's a single sighting (possibly migratory species) and not a local native species.

Saturday, September 25, 2010

Latest Singapore Butterflies Observation Checklist

This checklist is not based on any systematic surveys but observation records contributed by Local Butterflies Groups (Nature Society Singapore - Butterflies Interest Group, ButterflyPals, ButterflyCircle) and individual butterflies observers.
Based on the book 'The Butterflies of the Malay Peninsula' by A.S. Corbet and H. M. Pendlebury, Fourth Edition (BMP), per update to BMP published in MNJ 2006, 59 (1), 1-49

Last updated on Sep 2010

[N] = new species not recorded in C&P4

Family : Papilionidae
1 Troides helena cerberus (Common Birdwing)
2 Pachliopta aristolochiae asteris (Common Rose)
3 Chilasa clytia clytia (Common Mime)
4 Papilio demoleus malayanus (Lime Butterfly)
5 Papilio demolion demolion (Banded Swallowtail)
6 Papilio iswara iswara (Great Helen)
7 Papilio polytes romulus (Common Mormon)
8 Papilio memnon agenor (Great Mormon)
9 Papilio prexaspes prexaspes (Blue Helen)
10 Graphium sarpedon luctatius (Common Bluebottle)
11 Graphium doson evemonides (Common Jay) [N]
12 Graphium evemon eventus (Blue Jay)
13 Graphium agamemnon agamemnon (Tailed Jay)

Family : Pieridae
14 Pathysa antiphates itamputi (Five Bar Swordtail)
15 Delias hyparete metarete (Painted Jezebel)
16 Hebomoia glaucippe aturia (Great Orange Tip) [N] ***
17 Leptosia nina malayana (Psyche)
18 Pieris canidia canidia (Cabbage White)
19 Appias lyncida vasava (Chocolate Albatross) ***
20 Appias libythea olferna (Striped Albatross)
21 Catopsilia pyranthe pyranthe (Mottled Emigrant)
22 Catopsilia pomona pomona (Lemon Emigrant)
23 Catopsilia scylla cornelia (Orange Emigrant)
24 Eurema brigitta senna (No Brand Grass Yellow)
25 Eurema hecabe contubernalis (Common Grass Yellow)
26 Eurema simulatrix tecmessa
27 Eurema blanda snelleni (Three Spot Grass Yellow)
28 Eurema andersonii andersonii
29 Eurema sari sodalis (Chocolate Grass Yellow)
30 Gandaca harina distanti (Tree Yellow)

Family : Nymphalidae
31 Danaus chrysippus chrysippus (Plain Tiger)
32 Danaus genutia genutia (Common Tiger)
33 Danaus melanippus hegesippus (Black Veined Tiger)
34 Parantica aspasia aspasia (Yellow Glassy Tiger) ***
35 Parantica agleoides agleoides (Dark Glassy Tiger)
36 Ideopsis vulgaris macrina (Blue Glassy Tiger)
37 Idea stolli logani (Common Tree Nymph)
38 Idea leuconoe chersonesia (Mangrove Tree Nymph)
39 Euploea crameri bremeri (Spotted Black Crow)
40 Euploea camaralzeman malayica (Malayan Crow) ***
41 Euploea eyndhovii gardineri (Striped Black Crow)
42 Euploea mulciber mulciber (Striped Blue Crow)
43 Euploea tulliolus ledereri (Dwarf Crow)
44 Euploea phaenareta castelnaui (King Crow)
45 Euploea midamus singapura (Blue Spotted Crow)
46 Euploea radamanthus radamanthus (Magpie Crow)
47 Melanitis leda leda (Common Evening Brown)
48 Elymnias panthera panthera (Tawny Palmfly)
49 Elymnias hypermnestra agina (Common Palmfly)
50 Lethe europa malaya (Bamboo Tree Brown)
51 Mycalesis fusca fusca (Malayan Bush Brown)
52 Mycalesis perseus cepheus (Dingy Bush Brown)
53 Mycalesis mineus macromalayana (Dark Brand Bush Brown)
54 Mycalesis visala phamis
55 Mycalesis orseis nautilus (Purple Bush Brown)
56 Orsotriaena medus cinerea (Nigger)
57 Ypthima huebneri (Common Four Ring)
58 Ypthima fasciata torone
59 Ypthima baldus newboldi (Common Five Ring)
60 Ypthima horsfieldii humei
61 Ypthima pandocus corticaria (Common Three Ring)
62 Faunis canens arcesilas (Common Faun)
63 Amathusia phidippus phidippus (Palm King)
64 Zeuxidia amethystus amethystus (Saturn)
65 Thaumantis klugius lucipor (Dark Blue Jungle Glory)
66 Discophora sondaica despoliata (Common Duffer)
67 Acraea violae (Tawny Coster) [N]
68 Cupha erymanthis lotis (Rustic)
69 Phalanta phalantha phalantha (Leopard)
70 Cirrochroa orissa orissa (Banded Yeoman)
71 Vindula dejone erotella (Cruiser)
72 Terinos terpander robertsia (Royal Assyrian)
73 Cethosia cyane (Leopard Lacewing) [N]
74 Cethosia hypsea hypsina (Malay Lacewing)
75 Junonia hedonia ida (Chocolate Pansy)
76 Junonia atlites atlites (Grey Pansy)
77 Junonia almana javana (Peacock Pansy)
78 Junonia orithya wallacei (Blue Pansy)
79 Vanessa cardui (Painted Lady) [N] ***
80 Vanessa indica indica (Indian Red Admiral) [N] ***
81 Hypolimnas anomala anomala (Malayan Eggfly)
82 Hypolimnas misippus misippus (Danaid Eggfly)
83 Hypolimnas bolina bolina (Great Eggfly)
83a Hypolimnas bolina jacintha (Jacintha Eggfly) [N]
84 Doleschallia bisaltide pratipa (Autumn Leaf) ***
84a Doleschallia bisaltide ?bisaltide (Autumn Leaf) [N]
85 Chersonesia peraka peraka (Little Maplet)
86 Neptis hylas papaja (Common Sailor)
87 Neptis leucoporos cresina (Grey Sailor)
88 Neptis harita harita (Chocolate Sailer)
89 Phaedyma columella singa (Short Banded Sailor)
90 Lasippa heliodore dorelia
91 Lasippa tiga siaka (Burmese Lascar)
92 Pantoporia hordonia hordonia (Common Lascar)
93 Pantoporia paraka paraka (Perak Lascar)
94 Athyma pravara helma (Lance Sergeant) [N]
95 Athyma asura idita (Studded Sergeant)
96 Athyma kanwa kanwa (Dot-Dash Sergeant)
97 Athyma reta moorei  (Malay Staff Sergeant)
98 Athyma nefte subrata (Colour Sergeant)
99 Pandita sinope sinope
100 Moduza procris milonia (Commander)
101 Lebadea martha parkeri (Knight)
101a Lebadea martha malayana (Knight) [N]
102 Tanaecia pelea pelea (Malay Viscount)
103 Tanaecia iapis puseda (Horsfield's Baron)
104 Euthalia monina monina (Malay Baron)
105 Euthalia aconthea gurda (Baron)
106 Euthalia adonia pinwilli (Green Baron)
107 Lexias dirtea merguia [N]
108 Lexias pardalis dirteana (Archduke)
109 Lexias canescens pardalina
110 Eulaceura osteria kumana (Purple Duke)
111 Euripus nyctelius euploeoides (Courtesan)
112 Polyura hebe plautus (Plain Nawab)
113 Polyura schreiber tisamenus (Blue Nawab)
114 Charaxes solon echo (Black Rajah)

Family: Riodinidae
115 Abisara geza niya
116 Abisara saturata kausamboides (Malayan Plum Judy)
117 Abisara savitri savitri (Malay Tailed Judy)
118 Laxita thuisto thuisto (Lesser Harlequin)
119 Taxila haquinus haquinus (The Harlequin)

Family : Lycaenidae
120 Poritia philota philota
121 Poritia sumatrae sumatrae (Sumatran Gem)
122 Liphyra brassolis abbreviata (Moth Butterfly)
123 Miletus gopara gopara
124 Miletus biggsii biggsii (Bigg's Brownie)
125 Miletus symethus petronius
126 Allotinus unicolor unicolor (Lesser Darkie)
127 Logania marmorata damis
128 Spalgis epius epius (The Apefly)
130 Curetis saronis sumatrana (Sumatran Sunbeam)
131 Caleta elna elvira (Elbowed Pierrot)
132 Everes lacturnus rileyi (Indian Cupid)
133 Neopithecops zalmora zalmora (The Quaker)
134 Megisba malaya sikkima  (The Malayan) [N]
135 Acytolepis puspa lambi (Common Hedge Blue)
136 Zizina otis lampa (Lesser Grass Blue)
137 Zizeeria maha serica (Pale Grass Blue) [N]
138 Zizula hylax pygmaea (Pygmy Grass Blue)
139 Chilades pandava pandava (Cycad Blue)
140 Euchrysops cnejus cnejus (Gram Blue)
141 Catochrysops strabo strabo (Forget-me-not)
142 Catochrysops panormus exiguus (Silver Forget-Me-Not)
143 Lampides boeticus (Pea Blue)
144 Jamides bochus nabonassar  (Dark Caerulean)
145 Jamides celeno aelianus (Common Caerulean)
146 Jamides malaccanus malaccanus
147 Jamides caeruleus caeruleus (Sky Blue)
148 Jamides elpis pseudelpis (Glistering Caerulean)
149 Jamides alecto ageladas (Metallic Caerulean)
150 Nacaduba angusta kerriana (White Fourline Blue)
151 Nacaduba sanaya elioti (Jewel Four-Line Blue)
152 Nacaduba pavana singapura
153 Nacaduba beroe neon
154 Nacaduba berenice icena (Rounded 6-Line Blue)
155 Nacaduba biocellata (Two Spotted Line Blue) [N]
156 Nacaduba calauria malayica
157 Ionolyce helicon merguiana (Pointed Line Blue)
158 Prosotas nora superdates (Common Line-Blue)
159 Prosotas dubiosa lumpura (Tailess Line Blue)
160 Catopyrops ancyra (Ancyra Blue) [N]
161 Petrelaea dana dana (Dingy Line Blue) [N]
162 Anthene emolus goberus (Ciliate Blue)
163 Anthene lycaenina miya (Pointed Ciliate Blue)
164 Spindasis syama terana (Club/Black Banded Silverline)
165 Spindasis lohita senama (Long Banded Silverline)
166 Arhopala abseus abseus
167 Arhopala aedias agnis (Large Metallic Oakblue)
168 Arhopala ammon ammon
169 Arhopala amphimuta amphimuta
170 Arhopala antimuta antimuta
171 Arhopala athada athada  (Vinous Oakblue)
172 Arhopala atosia malayana (Tailed Disc Oakblue)
173 Arhopala aurea
174 Arhopala epimuta epiala (Common Disc Oakblue)
175 Arhopala eumolphus maxwelli (Green Oakblue)
176 Arhopala major major
177 Arhopala myrzala lammas
178 Arhopala pseudocentaurus nakula (Centaur OakBlue)
179 Arhopala pseudomuta pseudomuta (Raffles' Oakblue)
180 Arhopala silhetensis adorea (Sylhet Oakblue)
181 Arhopala trogon
182 Flos diardi capeta
183 Flos fulgida singhapura
184 Flos anniella anniella
185 Flos apidanus saturatus
186 Semanga superba deliciosa
187 Surendra vivarna amisena (Acacia Blue)
188 Iraota rochana boswelliana  (Scarce Silverstreak)
189 Catapaecilma major emas (Gray Tinsel)
190 181. Loxura atymnus fuconius (Yamfly)
191 182. Eooxylides tharis distanti (Branded Imperial)
192 Cheritra freja friggia (Common Imperial)
193 Drupadia ravindra moorei (Common Posy)
194 Drupadia rufotaenia rufotaenia (Pygmy Posy)
195 Drupadia theda thesmia (Dark Posy)
196 Horaga syrinx maenala (Ambon Onyx)
197 Pratapa deva relata
198 Tajuria cippus maxentius (Peacock Royal)
199 Tajuria mantra mantra
200 Tajuria dominus dominus
201 Jacoona anasuja anasuja (Great Imperial)
202 Neocheritra amrita amrita (Grand Imperial)
203 Mantoides hypoleuca terana (Green Imperial)
204 Remelana jangala travana (Chocolate Royal)
205 Pseudotajuria donatana donatana
206 Hypolycaena thecloides thecloides
207 Hypolycaena erylus teatus (Common Tit)
208 Zeltus amasa maximinianus (Fluffy Tit)
209 Deudorix elioti
210 Deudorix epijarbas cinnabarus (Cornelian)
211 Virachola kessuma deliochus (Pitcher Blue)
212 Sinthusa nasaka amba (Narrow Spark) [N]
213 Bindahara phocides phocides (The Plane)
214 Rapala domitia domitia (Yellow Flash)
210 Rapala pheretima sequiera (Copper Flash)
215 Rapala suffusa barthema  (Suffused Flash)
216 Rapala dieneces dieneces (Scarlet Flash)
217 Rapala iarbus iarbus (Common Red Flash)
218 Rapala manea chozeba  (Slate Flash)
219 Rapala varuna orseis (Indigo Flash)

Family : Hesperiidae
220 Badamia exclamationis (Brown Awl)
221 Bibasis sena uniformis (Orange-Tail Awl) [N]
222 Burara etelka
223 Burara harisa consobrina (Orange Awlet)
224 Hasora badra badra (Common Awl)
225 Hasora chromus chromus (Common Banded Awl)
226 Hasora schoenherr chuza (Yellow Banded Awl)
227 Hasora taminatus malayana (White Banded Awl)
228 Hasora vitta vitta (Plain Banded Awl)
229 Tapena thwaitesi bornea [N]
230 Odina hieroglyphica ortina
231 Pseudocoladenia dan dhyana (Fulvous Pied Flat) [N]
232 Gerosis sinica minima
233 Tagiades japetus atticus (Common Snow Flat)
234 Tagiades gana gana (Large Snow Flat)
235 Tagiades ultra
236 Tagiades calligana
237 Odontoptilum angulatum angulatum (Chestnut Angle)
238 Ampittia dioscorides camertes (Bush Hopper)
239 Halpe ormenes vilasina
240 Iambrix salsala salsala (Chestnut Bob)
241 Iambrix stellifer stellifer (Starry Bob)
242 Psolos fuligo fuligo (Coon)
243 Ancistroides nigrita maura (Chocolate Demon)
244 Notocrypta paralysos varians (Banded Demon)
245 Udaspes folus (Grass Demon)
246 Suastus gremius gremius (Palm Bob) [N]
247 Suastus everyx everyx [N]
248 Zographetus doxus
249 Hyarotis adrastus praba (Tree Flitter)
250 Quedara monteithi monteithi
251 Plastingia naga (Chequered Lancer)
252 Plastingia pellonia (Yellow Chequered Lancer)
253 Pemara pugnans (Pugnacious Lancer)
254 Pyroneura latoia latoia (Yellow Vein Lancer)
255 Zela zenon [N]
256 Gangara thyrsis thyrsis (Giant Redeye)
257 Erionota acroleuca apicalis
258 Erionota torus
259 Erionota thrax thrax (Banana Skipper)
260 Matapa aria (Common Redeye)
261 Unkana ambasa batara (Hoary Palmer)
262 Hidari irava (Coconut Skipper)
263 Eetion elia
264 Taractrocera ardonia lamia
265 Taractrocera archias quinta [N]
266 Oriens gola pseudolus (Common Dartlet)
267 Potanthus omaha omaha (Lesser Dart)
268 Potanthus serina (Large Dart)
269 Telicota colon stinga (Pale Palm Dart)
270 Telicota augias augias
271 Telicota besta bina
272 Telicota linna [N]
273 Cephrenes acalle niasicus
274 Cephrenes trichopepla (Yellow Palm Dart) [N]
275 Borbo cinnara (Formosan Swift)
276 Pelopidas agna agna (Little Branded Swift)
277 Pelopidas conjunctus conjunctus (Conjoined Swift) [N]
278 Pelopidas mathias mathias (Small Branded Swift)
279 Pelopidas assamensis (Great Swift) [N]
280 Polytremis lubricans lubricans (Contiguous Swift)
281 Baoris farri farri
282 Baoris oceia (Paintbrush Swift)
283 Caltoris cormasa

***Special Notes:
Migratory species (single sighting):
Hebomoia glaucippe aturia (Great Orange Tip)

Vanessa cardui (Painted Lady)
Vanessa indica indica (Indian Red Admiral)

Migratory species (multiple sighthing):
Appias lyncida vasava (Chocolate Albatross)

Suspected species (brought in by Human Agent?)
Parantica aspasia aspasia (Yellow Glassy Tiger) - 2 sighting, 1 by NSS at Alex Butterfly Trail and 1 at Hortpark
Doleschallia bisaltide pratipa (Autumn Leaf) - found in Zoo compound

Removed from the old checklist (no recent sighting & no photograph record):
Delias pasithoe parthenope (Red Base Jezebel)
Euploea camaralzeman malayica (Malayan Crow)
Mycalesis perseoides perseoides
Caltoris philippina philippina

Early stage of Baoris oceia (Paintbrush Swift)

Friday, September 24, 2010

New record for Singapore - Telicota linna (Linna Palm Dart)

Reference to the earlier posting on the early stage of Telicota linna.

After set & dissecting the genitalia of the skipper in question, and also consulted Dr. Laurence G. Kirton, the skipper were then confirmed as Telicota linna.

The keys used in identification illustrated below:

  • The Butterflies of The Malay Peninsula, A.S. Corbet and H.M. Pendlebury, 4th Edition, Malayan Nature Society.
  • Butterflies of Thailand, Pisuth Ek-Amnuay, 1st Edition, 2006