Thursday, October 29, 2015

Early stage of Great Imperial (Jacoona anasuja anasuja)

Note: The early stage was recorded as Grand Imperial previously due to mis-identification.

Wednesday, October 21, 2015

Early stage of Nacaduba kurava (Transparent Six-line Blue)

ID corrected as pointed out by Dr. Seow TL, previously recorded as N. calauria.

Early stage of Colonel

Early stage of the Colonel (Pandita sinope)

Butterfly Description:
Wingspan: 45 - 60 mm

Colonel butterfly is uncommon in Singapore, usually found near to their host plants. Both sexes of the butterfly are looks alike with the brighter orange on male and darker orange on female. The post-discal and sub-marginal band are broader in the female.

The early stage of the Colonel (Pandita sinope) resembled closely to Colour Sergeant (Athyma nefte) and Malay Staff Sergeant (Athyma reta). The three species are likely to be closely related.

The Colonel is the sole representative of the genus.

Host plant Description
Family: Rubiaceae
Uncaria sp.

The host plant is not uncommon and found in several locations in the Central Catchment as well as some well wooded wasteland and parks.

Host plant: Uncaria sp.
Host plant with hook like structure between the leaves

Early stages Description:
Eggs of Colonel are usually laid singly on the tip of the host plant leaf. The entire early stage from egg to adult took about 28 days to complete.

Photo showing egg in live size view (top), close-up view (bottom left), and super close-up (bottom middle and right)

3rd instar larva, frass chain observed at the side of the leaf, where the larva usually rested. The larva head capsule even showing greenish substance, probably the frass sticked to the capsule when the larva constructing the frass chain.
3rd instar larva

4th instar larva

Early 5th instar larva
front view of the larva head capsule

5th instar larva - dorsal view

5th instar larva - side view and head capsule view

Mature 5th instar larva before pupation stage

Larva in pre-pupation stage

3 view of the Colonel pupa

2 view of the Colonel pupa, 1 day before emerging

2 view of the Colonel pupa, hour before emerging

Further reading:

  • The Butterflies of The Malay Peninsula, A.S. Corbet and H.M. Pendlebury, 4th Edition, Malayan Nature Society.
  • Butterflies of Thailand, Pisuth Ek-Amnuay, 1st Edition, 2006

Monday, October 19, 2015

Butterfly Photo Identification

Continue on the earlier posting about OpenCV, Deep Learning and Butterfly, the end result we have is a wonderful online service:

NSS Butterfly Photo Identification (BPI)

BPI currently support identification of over 300 butterfly species found in Singapore. It's a world first to deploy such service for identification of butterfly species.

BPI took extra care for several difficult to identify butterfly genus (e.g. Arhopala sp., Mycalesis sp. & Potanthus sp.,) by covering species found in Malaysia and Thailand. Thus users from Malaysia and Thailand able to use BIP to identify the 3 genus of butterflies species with more confidence!

BPI proven to be useful not only to beginner but also amateur and advance butterfly watcher. With the launch of skipper edition, BPI immediately pointed out a new species of Potanthus found locally and that lead to the discovery of the new Potanthus ganda (Ganda Dart) recently.

Special acknowledgement:
BIP would not success without the help of peoples like Gan CW, Anuj, Lena Chow, many of NSS friendsFederick HoDr. Seow TL; Jonathan Crall, Jason Parham and other great developers from IBEIS.

Interesting link:
They are other similar services available online: